Open Access Original Research Article

Clean Energy Access and Productive Use by Bottom of Pyramid Clients in Ethnic & Tribal Areas of Odisha: An Appraisal

Shiv Sankar Das, Debashree Debadatta Behera, Siba Prasad Mishra, Gautam Pradhan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 38-50
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3631072

Ending poverty and ensuring sustainability are the defining challenges of the recent times. Energy has the answer to both [1]. Surged right of entry to the modern energy uses  is perilous but a positive  support to human and their economic expansion through uninterrupted delivery of energy amenities for elementary needs to support both prolific uses and generating employments. Access to modern energy Services like electricity, natural fossil and coal gases, cooking hydrocarbons and wood fuel, etc. are essential for value-added health and agrarian yield [2]. This paper discus on actionable research undertaken for improving the quality of life of countryside individuals (mainly scheduled tribe areas) in some districts of southern zones Odisha by using clean energy systems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Dietary Cation-Anion Difference on Milk Composition and Blood Mineral Status of Peripartum Buffaloes

R. N. Patel, P. C. Lailer, . Vipin, P. K. Soni, K. Kumar, S. Bhardwaj

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 79-88
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3631075

This study aimed to determine the effect of diet formulated to provide prepartum (DCAD= -749.16 mEq/head/day) and postpartum (DCAD = 1473.56 mEq/head/day) by feeding 90 g of an anionic and 120 g cationic salt respectively, on blood mineral concentration, health, postpartum milk production and composition in buffaloes. Twenty multiparous buffaloes were enrolled 21 days before expected calving date and divided into two groups. The treatment group with 10 cows received anionic rations for - 21 day to parturition and cationic ration from parturition to +21 days, while the control group was fed a usual ration. Postpartum incidences of milk fever, dystocia, retention of placenta, mastitis as well as weekly data of milk production, and milk composition were recorded. Plasma samples obtained at days -21, -10, -1, +1, +10 and +21 relative to calving were analyzed for calcium and magnesium. Magnesium concentration was increased with reduced prepartum Dietary Cation-Anion Difference (DCAD) in the diet value being 2.77±0.13 mg/dl and 3.15±0.12 mg/dl for the control and treatment group respectively, one day before calving. Calcium concentration was significantly higher (P<0.05) just one day before calving and it further higher (P<0.001) at 1, 10 and 21 days after calving in the treatment group as compared to the control group. Considerable reduction in per cent incidence of parturient paresis (10.0 vs. 20.0), and prolapse (0.0 vs. 10.0) was observed treatment group as compared to the control group. The DCAD concentration had no effect on milk yield, protein, lactose and fat corrected milk, but postpartum milk fat was significantly increased by the treatment. It may be concluded that by altering DCAD of the diet can increase postpartum milk fat with benefits in calcium status and reduced disease incidence without negatively affecting performance in periparturient buffaloes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Quality Indicators as an Assessment Tool to Maximize the Productivity of Pulse Crops

B. Bhakiyathu Saliha, R. Indrani, C. Priyanka

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 89-95
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3631076

The present research investigation was taken up  during 2017-2019 to evaluate the properties and fertility status of soils through physical, chemical and biological indicators of soil quality in the major pulse growing regions which were classified into three categories viz., low yielding (< 400kg ha-1), medium (400 to 700 kg ha-1) and high yielding (> 700 kg ha-1). 300 samples collected from these zones were subjected to analysis and weight ages were assigned to each soil quality attribute through Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and those that explain at least 5% of the variation in the data were examined by using SPSS software. The mean percentage of water stable aggregates was the highest (51%) in high yielding soils which can be attributed to the beneficial effect of organic manure application and balanced fertilizer usage. Most of the samples in the high yielding soils were neutral to slightly alkaline (pH of 7.20 to 7.85), while that of medium and low yielding soils were  moderately alkaline and neutral to slightly alkaline respectively. However low yield category had an average cation exchange capacity of 12.2 c mol (p+) kg-1, whereas that of medium and high yield  categories recorded 21.8 and 36.9 c mol (p+) kg-1 respectively. The soils of high, medium and low yield zones recorded 282,234 and 138 kg ha-1 of available nitrogen respectively. The sulphur status in pulse growing soils revealed deficiency in 88 percent of the samples from low yielding zones which needs due attention. The overall results of the study concluded that the higher values of soil attributes such as aggregate stability, cation exchange capacity, organic carbon, available nitrogen, available potassium and extractable micronutrients corresponded well with the high yield category indicating the importance of these soil quality indicators for improving the pulse productivity in low yield zones.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact Assessment on Knowledge of Weather Based Agro-advisory Services among Farmers in Tiruvallur District, Tamil Nadu

S. Arul Prasad, V. A. Vijayashanthi, R. Manimekalai, P. Yogameenakshi, P. Pirathap

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 96-101
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3631077

Weather influences the production and productivity of various crops. If farmers aware about           the real time weather factors such as temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind           direction and rainfall it will be the effective to prevent the crop failure and achieve high yield with better economic returns. The right weather information at right time facilitates the farmers to plan agricultural operations from selection of crops to post harvest to avoid crop losses. 382 AAS bulletins were prepared and disseminated to the farmers during 2019-2020. To study the            effect of weather based agro-advisory services, a random sample survey was conducted from 60 farmers from villages of Tiruvallur and Tiruttani block of Tiruvallur district. Results indicated that focusing illiterate farmers are much more important and dissemination of weather advisories in audio or visual format is preferable to make them to adapt weather based agricultural practices. The survey revealed that 65 per cent of farmers check weather forecast before going for spraying operation, 73 per cent for irrigation and 55 per cent for animal husbandry maintenance. Our study revealed that the farmers focus more on spraying and irrigation operation based on weather forecast. Further, awareness is to be created to realize that they should also need to follow weather forecasts from the selection of crop to post harvest in order to achieve better productivity and good income.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Genetic Divergence among Barley Genotypes Based on Agro-Morphological Characters

Zerihun Jalata, Belay Garoma, B. C. Nandeshwar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 102-110
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3631078

The knowledge of nature and the magnitude of divergence existing in the breeding materials are useful to identify suitable parents or populations to combine favorable genes. Thus, 28 barley genotypes were evaluated at Gitilo site in RCB design with three replications during the 2018/19 season. The aim of the study was to investigate the magnitude of genetic divergence among the existing breeding materials. The result revealed that the barley genotypes were grouped into four clusters. The inter-cluster distance was greater between clusters I and II, followed by cluster II and III and then between clusters II and IV, I and IV, III and IV, between I and III so that crossing among parents from distant clusters result in wide array populations with desirable alleles. Besides this, cluster mean analysis showed clusters IV and III contained desirable characters for high yield potential including net blotch and scald resistance indicating their suitability for direct variety development. The variation studied through principal component analysis revealed four principal components (PC1:32.7%, PC2:22.4%, PC3:16.7% and PC4:11.6%) accounting for about 83.4% of the total variation. Furthermore, the biplot graph identified barley genotypes or populations 21, 20, 24 and 12 as desirable parents mainly for grain yield, biomass yield per plant and thousand kernel weights.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes for Morpho-physiological Traits along with Grain Fe and Zn Content

Mainak Barman, Vinay Kumar Choudhary, Satish Kumar Singh, Rabiya Parveen, Abhishek K. Gowda

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 130-140
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3631081

Character association studies help in assessing the relationship among yield and its components to enhance the selection utility. In view of this, the present research was carried out for assessing correlation and path coefficients among 30 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes using fifteen quantitative parameters. Correlation analysis demonstrated a noteworthy positive relationship of days to fifty per cent flowering, number of tillers/plant, flag leaf area, spike length, plant height, chlorophyll content, relative water content, number of grains/ ear, thousand-grain weight, days to maturity and harvest index, with grain yield per plant at both the phenotypic and genotypic level except canopy temperature which showed a significant negative relationship. Path coefficient analysis revealed that plant height, flag leaf area, relative water content and grain per ear had the maximum positive direct effect on grain yield. Hence, the present investigation can be helpful in executing a reliable selection of parental lines based on these above mentioned traits in addition to developing high-yielding varieties for further breeding programme.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Quick-Look Model to Predict Gas Hydrate Formation in Gas Pipelines using Modified Navier-Stokes Correlation

Akinsete O. Oluwatoyin, Oladipo O. Olatunji, Isehunwa O. Sunday

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3631067

Major challenges associated with the smooth production operations in the oil and gas industry that has raised technical curiosity are formation of natural gas hydrates in production facilities and flow lines which introduces significant cost to operators. Accurate modeling is therefore paramount; most existing models are based on constitutive conservation laws neglecting other dissipative energy types.

To predict “if” and “where” gas hydrate would be formed in gas pipeline, the Navier-Stokes equation was modified by incorporating dissipative forces of viscosity and gravity; the equation that emerged was solved analytically to determine the hydrate formation pressure (HFP) and the position of hydrate formation along gas pipelines.

The developed model, used as a quick-look tool for where and if hydrates will form revealed that when the predicted HFP is positive hydrates was formed but when it is negative hydrates were not formed. The model also showed that HFP is a function fluid composition, mass flowrate, changes in fluid and surrounding conditions and changes in elevation and direction confirming the results of earlier work done.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution of Two Species of Begomoviruses Infecting Blackgram in Andhra Pradesh

B. H. Chaithanya, B. V. Bhaskara Reddy, L. Prasanthi, R. Sarada Jayalakshmi Devi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 12-17
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3631068

Background: Yellow mosaic diseases of blackgram is caused by two species of begomoviruses (MYMV, MYMIV). It is known fact that certain varities which are resistant to one species are susceptible to another species when screened by agroinoculations. Hence data on distribution of DNA-A &B components of MYMV / MYMIV under field conditions were not available in Andhra Pradesh.

Methods: In the present study total eighty yellow mosaic infected blackgram samples were colleted from seven districts of Andhra Pradesh during rabi and kharif   2016-17. The total DNA was isolated and detected for presence DNA-A and B components of   MYMV/ MYMIV by PCR with specific primers. Samples which showed negative in normal PCR are further detected by RCA-PCR.

Results: PCR results showed that out of 80 YMD infected blackgram samples tested from seven districts, positve results were otained in 50% samples for MYMV-A, 98.75% for MYMIV-A,and  90% for MYMV-B   and none for MYMIV-B. However RCA-PCR detected MYMIV-B presence in all 7 samples (8.25%) collected from Guntur district, but none from other six districts. These results clearly shows that both species of begoviruses are present in Andhra Pradesh and MYMIV-A is predominant species   in Andhra Pradesh as compared to MYMV-A. Hence germplasm and breedig material should be screened for both the species of begomovirses either under field or through agroinoculations to develop YMV resistant blackgram. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Assessing the Socio-economic Characters of Banana Cultivating Farmers in Coimbatore and Erode Districts of Tamil Nadu

M. Malarkodi, V. M. Indumathi, K. Divya, B. Navaneetham, B. Krishnakumare

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 18-22
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3631069

Banana is a staple fruit in almost every Indian meal and also an important commercial crop that adds a considerable amount of dollar in country’s export revenues column. But in recent years the share is in decreasing trend due to some inevitable reasons. So understanding factors influencing banana exporting farmer’s especially among small and marginal farmers is a necessary one. This study tries to understand the socio-economic characteristics of banana farmers in Coimbatore and Erode district. 120 samples were selected randomly and well-structured interview schedule is used to collect data. The results show that most of the farmers were in the age group of 41 – 50 (32.50%) and are illiterate (28.33%) with farm experience of about 26-35 years (35%). Sample farmers largely live as a nuclear family (69.17%) and follow agriculture as a sole occupation (36.67%). Most of the sample farmers were marginal farmers (40.8%) with the annual income range of about 1 lakh to 3 lakh (35.83%). As many of them are small and marginal farmers and are illiterate, it is suggested to conduct number of training programs, tour visit and exhibition to increase the awareness about the export of banana.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Weed Management Practices on Economics of Groundnut in Coastal Zone of Karnataka

Kunal Narwal, B. S. Yenagi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 23-28
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3631070

Aims: To assess efficacy and economic viablity of herbicides on weed management in groundnut under groundnut during rabi-summer season.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Kumta, Uttar Kannada, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad (Karnataka) during rabi 2016-2017.

Methodology: The experiment comprised nine treatments are as follows. T1: Unweeded check, T2: Weed free check, T3: Two hand weeding (At 20 and 40 DAS), T4: pendimethalin 30% E.C. @ 1.5 kg ha-1 (PE) fb one hand weeding at 25 DAS, T5: oxyfluorfen 23.5% E.C. @ 200 g ha-1(PE) fb one hand weeding at 25 DAS, T6: pendimethalin 30% E.C. @ 1.5 kg ha-1 (PE)  fb quizalofop-p-ethyl 5% E.C. @ 50 g ha-1 20-30 DAS (POE), T7: pendimethalin 30% E.C. @ 1.5 kg ha-1 (PE) fb imazethapyr 10% S.L.  @ 75 g ha-1 20- 30 DAS (POE), T8: pendimethalin 30% E.C. @ 1.5 kg ha-1 (PE) fb oxyfluorfen 23.5% E.C. @ 100 g ha-1 at 20-30 DAS (POE), T9: pendimethalin 30% E.C. @ 1.0 kg ha-1 (PE) fb one hand weeding at 25 DAS.

Results: Among the weed management practices revealed that, higher cost of cultivation ( 53,340 ha-1) under weed free check and pod yield (2255 kg ha-1), gross return ( 92,446 ha-1), net return ( 45,239 ha-1) and benefit cost ratio (1.96) with pre-emergence application of pendimethalin 30% E.C. @ 1.5 kg ha-1 followed by one hand weeding at 25 DAS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design of Seeder in Relation to the Physical and Frictional Properties of Black Gram Varieties

Korla Harshavardhan, S. S. Sivakumar, J. John Gunasekar, V. Alex Albert, P. K. Padmanathan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 29-37
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3631071

Physical and frictional properties of black gram seeds play an essential role in designing a seeder in order to decide cell size, shape, thickness of metering disc and material, inclination of seed hopper. The present study aimed to determine the physical and frictional properties of black gram seeds of three varieties viz., VBN 6, ADT 5 & T9. Length, breadth, thickness, roundness, thousand seed weight, geometric mean diameter, sphericity were evaluated for designing metering disc of seeder. Bulk density, true density, angle of repose, coefficient of restitution and coefficient of static friction were evaluated for designing seed hopper of seeder. Cell diameters and thickness of the seed metering discs were designed based on the maximum breadth and length of seeds. Seed flow through the various components of the seeder were affected by both roundness and sphericity. Roundness of VBN 6, ADT 5 and T9 were 0.52, 0.49 and 0.51 respectively, while sphericity in the natural rest position of these seeds were 0.85±0.05, 0.85±0.06 and 0.85±0.04 respectively. The slope of the seed hopper was fixed at 30⁰, which is moderately higher than the average angle of repose of seeds for ensuring free flow of seeds. Mild steel sheet of material grade Fe 410 and 18 gauge i.e., 1.214mm thickness was selected for seed hopper in reference to the coefficient of static friction to other materials (Al, GI, SS & wood). In addition, the inner bottom surface of the seed hopper from where the seed enters into metering disc was imbedded with 3mm thick rubber sheet as its coefficient of restitution was lower than mild steel sheet of same thickness at different heights. It was observed that the average coefficient of restitution values of three varieties (VBN 6, ADT 5 & T9) were 4.2, 2.8, 2.8, 2.9, 2.9 & 2.1 times lower in rubber sheet compared to MS sheet at the heights of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 & 300 mm respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Fuzzy Logic in Prevention of Road Accidents Using Multi Criteria Decision Alert

Rajshri Gupta, Onkar K. Chaudhari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 51-61
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3631073

With development and growth of technology, there has been an upsurge in number of vehicles on the street globally, which has resulted in increase of traffic jams and road accidents. This growing problem is being studied by researchers to find the solution. Fuzzy logic method is widely used in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). In our study, considering various parameters required to control the vehicle safety, a fuzzy logic model was developed for automatic speed alert, brake alert with sensors and cameras in vehicles. For intelligent transport, Fuzzy Interface System (FIS) is developed to support drivers’ decision making and alert them to control speed and brake so as to avoid accidents. The Rule Based System was established using various linguistic rules. Accordingly, 50 effective IF—Then rules were generated in the present study. In conclusion, this model can be inbuilt in the vehicles, with different number of inputs and outputs and for a fully automated system, to reduce the road accidents and traffic jams. The outcome of the research would lead to reduction road accidents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detergent Use Practices in Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Online Survey

Saraswati Kumari Joshi, Nisha Adhikari, Shristi Joshi, Sita Kumari Joshi, Durga Kumari Joshi, Ravin Bhandari, Dirgha Raj Joshi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 111-118
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3631079

Every year the use of detergent is increasing and safety concerns about detergent are also increasing. However, in developing countries safety concerns about detergent is still a neglected topic. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of the general public towards the use of detergent. An online-based cross-sectional study was performed via sharing self-developed online KAP questionnaires and filled out by participants. The basic knowledge about detergent, its safety concern, and other related questions were used for the KAP assessments. A total of 510 participants took part in this study. The participants had mixed responses to the questions such as; [1]  the majority were using powder detergent (87.45%); [2] perceptions about detergent (an agent for cleansing clothes (48.04%), a chemical agent (39.02%)); [3] the purpose of using detergent (to remove dirt (48.04%), for easiness of cleaning (45.1%)); [4] the cost of detergent (affordable (80%), expensive (10.98%)); [5] the selection of detergent (based on previous satisfaction (60.98%), brand name (19.02%));  [6] cause of not using particular brand detergent next time is (poor quality (75.1%), expensive (18.04%)); [7] mostly used brands (Wheel (35.69%), Ghadi (16.08%) and Patanjali (7.06%)); [8] safety concerns (only 8.82% used gloves during using detergent and only 50% realized the detergent can harm their skin, 67.84% have awareness that the detergent contaminates the environment, 10% experienced dryness of skin, 0.98% redness/allergy)); [9] 77.06% don’t have a washing machine; [10] soaking practice (21.37% start washing immediately after the addition of detergent, only 32.16% soak clothes for 20 to 60 minutes)); [11] waste water management (80.4% throw the detergent waste water to the normal sewage, 19.6% throw separately); [12] 37.45% always use soap along with powder detergent while washing clothes; [13] detergent stability problem (absorb moisture and get wet easily (64.31%) color change (16.08%) and dryness (10.78%)); [14] 28.63% prefer colorful detergent and 42.94% observed the color transfer from detergent to clothes; only 37.45% have experience of using herbal detergent; [15] laundry detergent also used for other purposes (wash dishes (19.61%), to wash hands (5.49%) and even body washing (1.76%)); [16] 19.61% of the participants’ mothers wash their clothes; [17] the majority of the participants realized the dirtiness of country people is due to poverty (58.04%). This study shows moderate awareness regarding the KAP of detergent use, management, and toxicity. Therefore, it can be derived that continuous education is needed about detergent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Consumer Food Preferences and Drivers amongst Ghanaians: Effect of the COVID-19 Pandemic

J. Agyei-Amponsah, M. Owureku-Asare, W. Katiyo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 119-129
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3631080

Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on food preference and choice of a group of Ghanaian consumers and to identify the key potential drivers.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted online. Data were collected over a 1-month period in May 2020 during the lockdown period of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methodology: The study questionnaire was administered through a virtual snowball sampling method using WhatsApp.

Results: The results of the study showed that age and gender were not critical for food choice during the lockdown period of the COVID-19 pandemic. Most consumers (92 %) either stayed away completely from eateries or patronized order/delivery services. Consumers’ food and diet choices were skewed toward eating healthier homemade foods to boost their immunity. The main drivers of purchase preference for the Ghanaian consumer during the lockdown period of COVID-19 were the expiration date, quality and sensory characteristics of food products.

Conclusion: The food preference of the group of Ghanaian consumers used surveyed in this study did not change during the COVID-19 restrictions. The Ghanaian consumer chose healthier homemade foods over food from eateries. The findings of this research work would be beneficial to government agencies and food companies involved in food supply intervention programmes during a pandemic.

Open Access Review Article

Mulches and Their Impact on Floor Management and Performance of Fruit Crops: A Review

Vijay P. Singh, Rajkumar Jat, Virendra Kumar, Ravinder singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 62-78
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3631074

Apart from the various innovations and technologies developed, productivity of most of the fruit crops in India remains at a lower level when compared to the major producers and developed countries. In the present era of health awareness, demand of the quality fruits, classified as protective foods, has increased globally. The ever-growing demand for the quality fruits and market competition has been compelling the farmers to produce more but quality fruits. Use of mulches is an age old practice and also one the cheapest methods under protected cultivation technologies which could help the orchardists to increase the production with higher quality. Looking to the several biotic and abiotic challenges in fruit production, adoption of mulching technique at large scale might be helpful to mitigate several problems considering the advantages of mulching. Several studies have shown that mulching in fruit crops has positive impact on soil moisture status, soil temperature along with weed suppression thus on rhizosphere of the plants. These rhizospheric conditions favour the vegetative as well as yield and quality parameters of the fruit crops. In this paper, an attempt has been made to review the impact of mulching on floor management (soil moisture status, soil temperature and weed suppression) as well as growth, yield and quality characteristics in fruit crops with the help of appropriate findings available in literature.