Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Organoleptic Evaluation of Foxtail and Proso Flakes Incorporated Energy Dense Snack Bar

S. Zubeda Sohan, B. Anila Kumari, W. Jessie Suneetha, Biradar Gayatri

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2030802

Nowadays, demand and aspiration for nutritionally balanced snacks that are palatable, portable, convenient is high. Increasing demand from consumers for nutritious snacks has provoked the researcher to develop food bars that are nutritious and convenient. The bar was  developed with the flakes of millets like foxtail (Setaria italica) and proso (Panicum miliaceum) along with other ingredients like jaggery, liquid glucose, skimmed milk powder, cocoa powder, dates, flax seeds, sesame seeds, groundnuts and soya granules. With different incorporation, four combination millet snack bars prepared were 50%, 60%, 70% and 80% of foxtail and proso flakes. The most acceptable was 50% millet flakes bar by the semi - trained panellist.

Open Access Original Research Article

Emergency Preparedness and Response in Tertiary and Private Hospitals in Yenagoa Metropolis

Ogoinja Amaitari, Babatunde Bolaji Bernard, Maduka Omosivie, Chikere Ezeokoro

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 6-22
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2030803

Many Hospitals around the world are functioning at full capacity and ill prepared to cope with sudden influx of large number of patients during emergencies. This study was carried out to assess the emergency preparedness and response in tertiary and private hospitals in Yenagoa Metropolis. It was a descriptive cross-sectional survey that used questionnaire and checklist, key informant interviews and walk through survey to collect data from 400 staff at the selected tertiary and private hospitals. The results showed that the respondents have good knowledge of emergency preparedness with 300(80%) out of 400 participants with good knowledge and only 100(20%) showing poor knowledge but the status of emergency preparedness and response was poor with Federal Medical Centre Yenagoa with 36(80%) of the items assessed lacking. Niger Delta University teaching Hospital scored 16(36%) while 29(64) not available from the assessment. Private facility 1 had a 6(13%) positive response out of the 45 list items with 39(86%) not in place while the second Private Hospital had a total positive score of 4(10%) with 41(90%) of the components of emergency preparedness lacking. Based on the outcome of the survey, the following recommendations were made: for the hospital management of both the tertiary and private hospitals to constitute an all-inclusive emergency management committee that will develop an emergency preparedness plan in the hospitals; Emergency preparedness and response training of hospital staff to further build their capacity to respond to emergencies or disasters when the need arises; Installation of proper triage unit in the emergency department for decontamination and to sort patients in case of highly infectious disease outbreak or chemical exposure; Collaboration with the State Ministry of Health to have memoranda of understanding with other hospitals to enhance patient transfer in case of disaster events.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceived Constraints on Participation of Rural Women in Decision-Making Process: Insights from Dairy Farming in Surguja District of Chhattisgarh

Ankur Gupta, Anindita Saha, Ravi Kumar Gupta, Digvijay Singh Dhakre

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 23-29
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2030804

The women folk are considered the backbone of the nation and better half of the men in almost all spheres of community development. Rural women constitute about 50% of the total rural population. The present study was conducted in Surguja district of Chhattisgarh to know the extent of participation of rural women in the decision-making process of dairy farming. Data were collected from 120 rural women using a structured interview schedule. 30 women farmers were chosen from each selected village thus constituting a sample size of 120 by simple random method. The study showed that the five components have greater than one Eigenvalues which was named constraint on social perception toward women, constraint on backwardness related, constraint of knowledge, Constraint on Resource Ownership and constraint on attitude. Dairy farming in the study area holds a very good future because certain dairy farming related operations and taking decisions farm women have better than male farmers. But due to many constraints and obstacles in the participation of rural women in the decision making process of dairy farming, which undermined the efficiency of rural women.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dynamics of Land Use Pattern in Madurai District of Tamil Nadu in Nexus with Common Property Land Resources

I. Rosalin Geetha, A. Vidhyavathi, S. Padma Rani

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 30-40
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2030805

This paper explores the dynamics of land use in Madurai district as it possesses the largest other fallow lands (48.28 per cent). Time series data on nine-fold classification for the study district of Tamil Nadu was collected from Season and Crop Reports of Tamil Nadu. The collected data from 1997-98 to 2017-18 were analysed using Compound Growth Rate, Cuddy Della Instability Index. Retention probability of land use pattern and forecasting was done using Markov Chain Analysis. The results revealed an increasing trend of Common Property Land Resources (CPLRs) due to declining nature of net sown area (-2.24 per cent per annum) and low retention capacity of current fallows. The erratic distribution of rainfall and water stress due to dry climatic conditions extends the current fallows into other fallow lands (4.54 per cent per annum). The predicted land use changes have also reflected the threatening scenario of increasing nature of current fallows and other fallow lands and declining nature of net sown area for the next decade. The study found Socio economic developments like Population growth and urbanization, and climatic conditions are drivers of change in land use pattern in Madurai district. Hence, the study suggest the promotion of less water intensive crops, water harvesting technologies like farm ponds and to give awareness about water saving technologies like micro irrigation to increase the productivity and profitability of agricultural lands where water and labour resources are scarce. Afforestation can be done in barren lands. Institutional arrangements should focus on framing Community User Group and women cooperatives to manage and effective utilisation of the increasing CPLRs in a better manner to ensure rainwater harvesting, fodder and fuel security, providing livelihood to rural poor as well as to sustain ecological balance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hematology of 2, 4 (Dinitrophenyl Hydrazine) Induced Anaemic Rat Administered with Ficus capensis Fruits and Leave Extract

N. N. Umerah, J. I. Okoye, A. I. Asouzu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 41-49
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2030806

Background: Anemia is regarded as public health challenge and is predominant in developing countries due to nutritional deficiencies.

Aim/Objectives: The study was carried out to evaluate the biological properties of Ficus capensis fruits and vegetables on some haematological parameters in 2, 4 (dinitrophenyl hydrazine) induced anemic rat.

Materials and Methods: Ficus capensis leaves and fruits were separately plucked, sorted cleaned. Twenty male adult rats were purchased from the Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The animals were divided into 4 groups of 5 rats each on the basis of body weight. The rats in all the groups received 2, 4-DNPH (20 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 7 days to induce anaemia. Group I were fed rat chow alone, group 2 were fed rat chow with ferrous sulphate, group 3 were fed rat chow with Ficus capensis leaves extract and group 4 were fed rat chow with Ficus capensis seed extract. The aqueous extracts of the leaves and fruits were tested for haematinic effects in albino rats. Blood parameters such as Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Red Blood Cell (RBC) count, White Blood Cell (WBC) count and Haemoglobin concentration (Hb) were measured.

Results: The result showed that the mean PCV baseline of the rats were (38.72-39.24%), mean PCV of anemic rats (33.01- 34.60%) and the mean PCV of the rats after test of recovery were group 1 (34.10%), group 2 (51.81%), group 3 (40.20%) and group 4 (38.20%).The result showed that the mean HB baseline of the rats were (9.67-10.47 g/dl), mean HB of anemic rats (6.50- 7.10 g/dl) and the mean HB of the rats after test of recovery were group 1 (6.51 g/dl), group 2 (12.32 g/dl), group 3 (9.73 g/dl) and group 4 (9.69 g/dl). The results of the effect of the extracts on the haematological parameters indicated that oral administration of the aqueous extract of Ficus capensis leaves and fruits after 22 days exhibited a significant (P < 0.05) increase in haematinic activity by increasing the blood parameters Hb, PCV, WBC and RBC.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Foliar Application of Nutrients on Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Cv. Bhagwa

Gitesh Kumar, D. D. Sharma, M. A. Kuchay, Rakesh Kumar, Gopal Singh, Bhawna Kaushal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 50-57
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2030807

A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of foliar application of nutrients on growth, yield and fruit quality of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cv. Bhagwa in the experimental farm of the Horticultural Research and Training Station and Krishi Vigyan Kendra Kandaghat, Solan, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pradesh (India), during the year 2016 - 2017. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with four foliar applications of potassium nitrate, KNO3 (0.5%, 1% and 1.5%); calcium chloride, CaCl2 (0.5%, 1% and 1.5%); boric acid, H3BO3 (0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6%) and their combinations. The first spray was applied one month after fruit set, and the remaining three ones were applied at one month interval. Among the various treatments, significant increase in plant height, plant spread, plant volume, fruit size, fruit weight, fruit yield, total soluble solids, total sugars, reduction in fruit drop and fruit cracking were recorded with the application of KNO3 (1%) + CaCl2 (1%) + H3BO3 (0.4%).  Leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg were also significantly affected by the foliar application of KNO3 (1%) + CaCl2 (1%) + H3BO3 (0.4%). Therefore, the combined foliar application of KNO3 (1%), CaCl2 (1%) and H3BO3 (0.4%) was found the best treatment for the improvement of growth, yield and fruit quality of pomegranate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Combining Ability Studies Based on Mori CMS System in Indian Mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss.]

Raju Ram Choudhary, Ram Avtar, R. K. Sheoran, . Samita, Deepak Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 58-66
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2030808

An experiment for Line x tester analysis was carried out to estimate combining ability effects of 50 hybrids developed by crossing of 10 Mori CMS lines with five restorers in Indian mustard. The F1 hybrids along with parental genotypes planted at Oilseeds Research Area, Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar India during 2018-19. Data recorded for 12 characters viz., days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height (cm), number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, main shoot length (cm), numbers of siliquae on main shoot, siliquae length (cm), number of seeds per siliquae, 1000-seed weight (g), oil content (%) and seed yield per plant (g). Analysis of variance revealed sufficient genetic variability present among lines, testers and crosses for most of the traits. There was presence of both additive and non-additive gene actions with preponderance of non-additive gene action in controlling yield and component traits. On the basis of overall performance of parents, line MA-023 and tester MR-38 were found the best general combiners for majority of component traits including seed yield per plant. Other three lines viz; MA-8701, MA-8812 and MA-9301 were also observed as good general combiners for most of component traits including seed yield per plant. Tester MR-43 and MR-44 were found good general combiner for earliness. On the basis of per se performance and specific combining ability, crosses namely MA-9301 x MR-44, MA-8701 x MR-38 and MA-9705 x MR-31 were observed as superior cross combinations for seed yield in desirable direction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Irrigation Practices on Water Use Its Efficiency and Economic Yield in Rice Varieties

P. Kunjammal, Subbalakshmi Lokanadhan, S. Murali Krishnasamy, D. Jawahar, K. Ganesamurthy

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 67-71
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2030809

A field experiment was carried out at the Agricultural College & Research Institute, Coimbatore in research farm during samba season 2018-2019 to assess the water use  and its efficiency in different rice varieties comprising aromatic rice, land races, popular cultivars and recent released variety under modified irrigation practices. The experimental design was a split plot with three replications. The main plots with contionous flooding and modified irrigation practices and  sub plots with eight varieties as treatments viz., (S1) Kalanamak, (S2) Jeeragasamba, (S3) Kavuni, (S4) Mappilaisamba, (S5)Improved TNAU White ponni, (S6) Bhavani, (S7) CO 51 and (S8) CO 52. Irrigation practice of alternate wetting and drying, monitoring with field tube registered lower consumption of water (900 mm) with less number of irrigation(14), higher water use efficiency (7.3 kg ha-1mm-1) and water productivity (1682 lit.kg-1) in rice, compared to flood irrigation practices. In Sub plot with different rice varieties viz., aromatic, landraces, popular cultivar and recently released rice variety among these varieties the recent released variety CO52 recorded higher grain yield (6.6 t ha-1), compared to other varieties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Weed Management Practices on Complex Weed Flora and Soil Microflora in Aerobic Rice under Rainfed Condition of Bihar

Birendra Kumar, Sunil Kumar, Rakesh Deo Ranjan, C. S. Azad

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 72-79
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2030810

A Field experiment was conducted during the Kharif season of 2018 at Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour (Bihar) to evaluate the performance of different herbicides in aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L). Weed management had a positive influence on growth, yield attributes and yield of the aerobic rice. In experimental field, Cyperus rotundus, Cyperus iria, Cyperus difformis, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Fimbristylis miliacea, Echinochloa colona, Echinochloa crus-galli, Commelina benghalensis, Caesulia auxillaris, Lippia nodiflora, Amaranthus spinosus, Oxalis acetosella, Amaranthus viridis, Eclipta alba, Phyllanthus niruri and Monochoria vaginalis were the dominant weed flora species. The results revealed that lowest weed population and weed dry weight were recorded in weed free situation which were significantly superior over rest of the herbicidal treatments. The maximum mean grain yield of aerobic rice (4.00 t/ha) was recorded by weed free which intern was statistically at par with the mean grain yield obtained from the herbicide Pyrazosulfuron fb one hand weeding (3.92 t/ha) followed by Pyrazosulfuron fb Bispyribac (3.88 t/ha), Bispyribac sodium (3.83 t/ha), Pyrazosulfuron+Ethoxysulfuron (3.62 t/ha), Bispyribac sodium+Pyrazosulfuron (3.61 t/ha) and Halosulfuron + Azimsulfuron (3.50 t/ha). Significantly lowest mean grain yield of (1.90 t/ha) was obtained from weedy check plots. The highest weed control efficiency (100%) was recorded under the treatment weed free which was followed by Pyrazosulfuron fb one hand weeding (85.96%), Pyrazosulfuron fb Bispyribac (84.77%), Bispyribac sodium (83.09%). All microflora (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes) were recorded maximum number under the treatment weedy check. There were halosulfuron causes some phytotoxic effects at early stage on rice crop. The highest gross return (Rs.70,000/ha) was obtained by weed free which was statistically at par with Pyrazosulfuron fb one hand weeding (Rs.68,600/ha), Pyrazosulfuron fb Bispyribac(Rs.67,900/ha), Bispyribac sodium (Rs.67,025/ha), Pyrazosulfuron+Ethoxysulfuron (Rs.63,350), Bispyribac sodium+Pyrazosulfuron (Rs.58,800/ha) and significantly superior over rest of the treatments. However, the highest net return (Rs. 37,323/ha) was recorded by the treatment Pyrazosulfuron fb Bispyribac sodium which was found superior over rest of the treatments. The highest B:C ratio (Rs.2.22) was recorded by Pyrazosulfuron fb Bispyribac which was statistically at par with Bispyribac sodium (Rs.2.20), Pyrazosulfuron fb one hand weeding (Rs.2.19), Pyrazosulfuron+Ethoxysulfuron (Rs.2.13) and Bispyribac sodium+Pyrazosulfuron (Rs.1.91) all these were significantly superior over rest of the treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Elucidating the Heterosis for Yield and Quality Parameters in Maize (Zea mays L.)

Narayan Ram Gurjar, Amit Dadheech, Sanjay Kumar, Khushbu Chittora, Turfan Khan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 80-85
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2030811

A set of thirty-nine hybrids of maize were developed to estimate heterosis. These hybrids were evaluated along with their respective parents and three standard checks namely, Pratap Hybrid Maize-3(PHM-3), PMH-3 and PM-9, were evaluated during Kharif 2017 for 14 characters at instructional farm Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur, Rajasthan. The mean sum of squares for hybrids, inbred lines and testers, was significant for all the traits except for days to 75 per cent brown husk of inbred lines. A perusal of estimates of economic heterosis for grain yield per plant revealed that five hybrids L7 x T2 (14.47%), L3 x T3 (11.19%), L6 x T2 (10.44%), L6 x T1 (9.93%), and L9 x T3 (9.88%) depicted positive significant economic heterosis for grain yield per plant over the best check Pratap Hybrid Maize-3. Hybrid (L6 x T2) also exhibited significant positive economic heterosis for oil content. These crosses will be considered for finding transgressive segregants in segregating generation to develop a maize variety with quality improvement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact Assessment of Block Level Agro Advisories for Saving Input Cost of Farmers under Old Gangetic Plains of West Bengal - A Case Study in Malda

Debjyoti Majumder, Rakesh Roy, F. H. Rahman, B. C. Rudra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 86-96
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2030812

Biweekly block level Agromet bulletins were disseminated based on medium range weather forecast with an objective to assess the effectiveness and usefulness of Block level Agro Advisory Services (AAS) and quantify the economic benefits through adopting the micro scale agromet advisory in their day to day agricultural operations at Malda, West Bengal. Two farmers groups were considered for the study on the basis of adoption and non-adoption of the agro-met advisories. Crop situation of these farmers were compared with nearby fields having the same crops where forecast were not adopted among non AAS farmers. The entire cost incurred along with yield and net returns were calculated from sowing to marketing of goods. Similarly, the weather forecast and actual weather data received from India Meteorological Department, New Delhi were compared to verify the accuracy of rainfall forecast for the year 2019-20 at GKMS centre, Malda KVK, West Bengal. It was apparent that the value of ratio score was higher during winter (84%) than pre-monsoon (80%), post-monsoon (79%) and monsoon (74%). However, the value of threat score was also found maximum during pre-monsoon season (79%). Statistical analysis like correlation coefficient, RMSE values of wind direction were found too high in all the four seasons to accept any homogeneity in the predicted and observed values. Blockwise verification of rainfall over the year showed the range of accuracy forecast for rainfall in between 67–76%. This forecast directly had a significant role in profit generation among the AAS adaptive farmers whose additional profit enhancement for maize cultivation was between 12% and 19% only towards cost of irrigation as compared to non-adaptive farmers. The study also showcased that the AAS adaptive farmers had a better livelihood as compared to non-AAS adaptive farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

PCR-SSCP Analysis of Keratin - Associated Protein (KAP) 6.1 Gene in Nilagiri and Dorset x Nilagiri Cross Breeds of Sheep

R. Bharathesree, R. Saravanan, M. Jeyakumar, N. Murali

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 97-102
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2030813

The present study was investigated to detect polymorphic patterns of the keratin-associated protein (KAP) 6.1 gene in 54 numbers of Nilagiri and 20 numbers of Dorset x Nilagiri breeds of sheep. DNA was isolated and amplified with ovine specific primers of KAP 6.1 gene. Allele frequencies of A, B, C, D and E was 0.79, 0.08, 0.15, 0.07 and 0.08 respectively with departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. KAP 6.1 gene was found to have a high degree of homozygosity (0.6668), and an effective number of alleles (Ne) for KAP 6.1 gene was 1.7007 in Nilagiri breeds of sheep, while the PIC value was 0.3909 with positive (0.1908) FIS value. From the study, PCR - SSCP analysis of KAP 6.1 gene revealed polymorphism in Nilagiri breeds whereas in Dorset x Nilagiri crossbred sheep two genotypes for the A/B with no polymorphism detected.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trend Analysis of Rainfall in Prakasam District of Andhra Pradesh State in India

M. Satya Swarupa Rani, R. Asha, G. M. V. Prasadarao

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 103-110
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2030814

Globally, precipitation trend analysis in different space and time has great impact on crop-planning activities. To get accurate unbiased results a long-term climate analysis of a particular area required in large variability in both spatially, temporally. For sustainable crop production long term weather analysis act as vital role in alternation of existing cropping patterns. This study aimed at analysing the trend of rainfall events in Prakasam district of Andhra state of India the data consists of annual precipitation time series from 1991-2019. Initially study concerns with analysis of data base using descriptive statistics, later trend change was detected by using non parametric tests. The results indicate an increased trend in June and monsoon season, with a decreased trend in July and winter season at 5% level of significance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Divergence Studies for Gall Midge Incidence, Earliness, Yield and Yield Components in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes in Telangana State

Sreedhar Siddi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 111-122
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2030815

The study was carried out with 32 genotypes of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under irrigated system in RBD design with three replications at Agricultural Research Station, Kunaram in Telangana State during the rainy season of 2017. In general, major problem is high incidence of gall midge (Biotype 3) in rainy season under early as well as late planting conditions in Northern Zone of Telangana State. Hence, all the 32 genotypes were evaluated with an aim to know the divergence among them for gall midge incidence, earliness, yield and yield components. Based on D2 analysis, 32 genotypes were distributed into twelve clusters with the cluster I (12) containing maximum number of genotypes followed by cluster II (9). Highest inter cluster distances were observed between the clusters X and XII (2469.5) followed by III and XII (2283.3), and VII and XII (2173.6) suggesting wide diversity between the traits. Cluster mean analysis revealed that genotype, WGL 1119 from the cluster V would be used in breeding programme to develop gall midge resistant, high yielding, early duration, non lodging, medium slender grain genotypes as it recorded very low incidence of galls (0.9%) with high yield (4869.7 kg/ha), early duration (84.7 days), short stature (93.7 cm) and less 1000-grain weight (14.8 g). The genotypes, KNM 2305 and MTU 1001 from the clusters viz., VIII and X, respectively were identified as potential lines for developing high yielding, early and medium duration, long bold or long slender grain varieties. Among the traits studied, days to 50% flowering (55.8%) and 1000-grain weight (31.9%) manifested highest contribution towards total divergence, thus, these traits could be given due importance by the breeders for development of superior rice genotypes under crop improvement programme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Physiological Parameters and Economics of Rice Cultivation under Different Establishment Methods and Water Management Practices

S. Selvakumar, S. Sakthivel, Akihiko Kamoshita, R. Babu, S. Thiyageshwari, A. Raviraj

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 123-131
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2030816

A field experiment was conducted at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India, during summer 2019 to study about the changes in physiological parameters of rice under various establishment and water management strategies and to find out the suitable method of rice establishment and irrigation management practices for tank irrigated command areas during water scarcity situation. Field experiment comprised of four establishment methods in combination with four irrigation management strategies. Medium duration fine grain rice variety TKM 13 was used for the study. Results of the study revealed that machine transplanting under unpuddled soil combined with irrigation after formation of hairline crack recorded improved physiological parameters and yield. It was on par with machine transplanting under unpuddled soil combined with irrigation when water level reaches 5 cm below soil surface. Higher gross return, net return and B:C ratio were observed with machine transplanting under unpuddled soil combined with irrigation after formation of hairline crack. This was followed by machine transplanting under unpuddled soil combined with irrigation when water level reaches 5 cm below soil. Hence, the result of study concluded that machine transplanting under unpuddled soil combined with irrigation when water level reaches 5 cm below soil surface can be recommended as the suitable technology for the farmers of tank irrigated command area to get higher return with minimum use of resources under water scarcity situation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Residue Management and Cropping System on Direct Deeded Rice and System Productivity

Alisha Kumari, Vinod Kumar, Rajan Kumar, Mukesh Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 132-137
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2030832

A field experiment was conducted during three seasons of 2018-19 at RPCAU, Pusa to evaluate the Effect of Residue Management and Cropping Systems on direct seeded rice and System productivity. Treatments comprised cropping systems in main plots: C1 - Rice - Wheat - Fallow, C2 - Rice - Wheat - Green Gram, C3 - Rice - Maize - Dhaincha, C4 - Rice - Maize + Potato - Dhaincha, C5 - Rice - Maize + Green Pea - Dhaincha and moisture regimes in sub plots with 3 days disappearance of ponded water in kharif season, three levels of IW/CPE ratio in rabi season I1 - IW/CPE = 0.6, I2 - IW/CPE = 0.8, I3 - IW/CPE = 1.0. Maximum number of tillers (273.55/m2), dry matter production (1464.91g/m2), number of panicles/m2 (267.80 m2), grain yield (52.21q/ha) of rice was observed in C5 cropping system and panicle length (23.99 cm cm), number of grains /panicle (160.05), straw yield (69.58 q/ha) in C4 which was  significantly superior than C1 cropping system. Plant height and 1000 grain weight, harvest index and Land Use Efficiency (LUE) were non significantly affected by different cropping systems. Maximum Rice Economic Yield (REY) of 24.26 t/ha and Production efficiency (PE) 73.97 kg/ha/day was observed in C4 which was significantly superior to rest of treatments. In sub plot maximum REY (15.905 t/ha) and PE (49.81 kg/ha/day) were observed in IW/CPE ratio 1 which was significantly superior to IW/CPE ratio 0.6 and 0.8.

Open Access Original Research Article

Livelihood Security Determinants of the Organic Farm Household in Sikkim, India: Ordered Logistic Regression Approach

Singyala Chiphang, Ram Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 138-143
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2030848

Aims: The study employed ordered logistic regression to assess the determinants of livelihood security of the organic farm households in Sikkim (India).

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in three blocks of East Sikkim district (viz. Martam, Nangdok and Ranka) between January and December 2019.

Methodology: Multistage sampling technique was adopted for the study. Three blocks were selected and from each block 2 villages were selected at random. At the last stage 150 respondents were selected from 6 villages using random proportional sampling. Ordered logistic regression was applied to assess the determinants of the livelihood security.

Results: Landholding, distance to market and possession of livestock were the significant determinants of livelihood security for the organic farm households in Sikkim.

Conclusion: Livelihood security of the organic farm households in Sikkim was influenced significantly by the determinants like landholding, access to market and possession of livestock. Therefore, livestock rearing practices should be encouraged among the farmers and up to some extent livestock incentives must be given to the farmers of the region. Besides markets for organic products should be encouraged at block level respectively by the central or the state government so that farmer can access to their input and output easily.