Open Access Original Research Article

A Bird Eye View of Fertiliser Industry of India

Rajesh Kumar Bishnoi, Abhijit Das, Utkarsha Pramod Gaware, Paresh Pundlikrao Baviskar, . Bhupender

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 9-18
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1430692

This paper attempts to provide a highlight of fertiliser industry of India by focusing on growth rate of industry and demand and supply side of fertiliser in India. Discussion is also made on consumption pattern of fertilisers in Indian states. And at last to know more about the industry porter’s five forces model analysis is done. Secondary data is used from published sources and the data which is available at public domain. Various tables and graphs are used to demonstrate the data. Different comparison and relations were made where necessary. After the FAO reports of 2016, India is using 165.85 Kg of fertiliser per hectare of arable land. China stands at 1st rank and India ranks 2nd and in nitrogenous and phosphatic fertiliser consumption. The Indian fertiliser market was worth INR 5,437 Billion in 2018. Looking forward, the market is projected to reach INR 11,116 Billion by 2024, growing at a CAGR of 12.3% during 2019-2024. In case of Urea, India has achieved 80-85% of self-sufficiency, and rest is imported from our joint ventures in abroad. To meet the demand of urea by indigenous production and to reduce the imports, Government of India, is investing an amount of Rs. 37971 Crore Rupees for revival of five fertiliser plants in India. Since FY 2016-17, the food grain production is increasing with the fertiliser consumption in India, because use of fertiliser is an important factor which impacts the food grain production in India. Unfortunately the, heavy use of urea is misbalancing the ideal fertiliser application ratio. To improve this ratio farmer’s has to move from straight fertilisers towards NPKS complex fertilisers for supplying the essential nutrients required by the plants for growth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Different Fungicides and Bioagents for the Management of Chickpea Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri)

Seethiya Mahajan, Deepak Kumar, Santosh Kumar Singh, Deepak Mahajan, Devendra Kumar, Shazia Paswal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 19-30
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1430693

The incidence of the chickpea wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri ranged between 8.11 - 21.67 and 10.98 - 23.99 per cent with an overall mean disease incidence of 15.64 and 16.86 per cent respectively during Rabi seasons of 2016-17 and 2017-18 in surveys conducted fortnightly in the different chickpea growing areas of Jammu sub-tropics. The maximum growth inhibition of pathogen i.e., 78.44 per cent was observed by local isolate T. harzianum (Th-III) and P. fluorescens (Pf-III) was least effective in controlling the growth of pathogen i.e., 53.00 per cent in In vitro studies. Among chemicals, carbendazim at 100 ppm was significantly effective in inhibiting the growth of pathogen (98.67%), while copper oxychloride and mancozeb showed inhibition of 83.11 and 82.22 per cent, respectively. Both the antagonists were highly sensitive to propiconazole (Tilt), carbendazim (Bavistin), difenoconazole (Score), iprodione + carbendazim (Quintal) and metalaxyl (Ridomil), giving no growth of T. viride (TV-III) and T. harzianum (TH-III). TMTD (Thiram) recorded least inhibition of both the bioagents. Under field conditions, bioagents recorded maximum seed germination of 90.21 and 90.07 per cent, whereas least germination was recorded in mancozeb (84.17 and 83.10%). Carbendazim recorded lowest disease incidence (14.92 and 14.97%) over untreated control (44.42 and 45.77%). However, maximum grain yield was recorded in azoxystrobin + T. harzianum-III (14.30 and 14.57 q/ha) and azoxystrobin + T. viride-III (14.15 and 14.38 q/ha) and the least grain yield was recorded in mancozeb (10.58 and 10.64 q/ha) during Rabi 2016-17 and 2017-18. Maximum increase in grain yield was recorded in azoxystrobin + T. harzianum-III (62.31 and 62.43%) followed by azoxystrobin + T. viride-III (62.61 and 60.87%) during Rabi 2016-17 and 2017-18.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Straw Chopper cum Incorporator with Existing Paddy Residue Management Technologies in Combine Harvested Paddy Field at North Western Region of India

Chelpuri Ramulu, Raj Narayan Pateriya, Mude Arjun Naik

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 31-40
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1430694

Burning of paddy residue is major problem which leads to adverse affect on our environment. Management of crop residues in conservation agriculture is vital for long-term sustainability of Indian agriculture. The straw chopper cum incorporator machine consists of chopping unit, incorporation unit, adjustable frame, pulleys and belts. The power is transmitted to the chopping unit and incorporation unit by tractor (55.95 kW) PTO with the help of gear box, belt, pulley and gear arrangement. The fuel consumption, field capacity and field efficiency of residue management machine were observed 12.5-14.0 l/h, 0.43-0.64 ha/h and 60.46% respectively. Cost economics of straw chopper cum incorporator machine was compared with existing technologies adopted by farmers i.e. straw chopper + 2 rotavator practice and 6 harrowing + rotavator + planker practice. The cost of operation of straw chopper cum incorporator machine was observed 4272.8 Rs.ha-1 lower than existing technologies. The break even point (BEP), pay back period and benefit cost (B:C) ratio of the Straw chopper cum incorporator machine were 45ha, 0.7 years and 1.17 respectively. Therefore, it is concluded that the Straw chopper cum incorporator machine can be recommended to the farmers for paddy residue management of combine harvested paddy field.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hotelling’s Rule Verification of a Mining Project

Pricope Sorin

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 55-59
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1430700

On the basis of a real (confidential) mining project data the Hotelling’s rule fitting is verified and a new production schedule is proposed, which better fulfill the Hotelling rate rule than the previously program published by the investor. The intertemporal influences in project duration period are analyzed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Entrepreneurial Behavior of Grape Growers in District Ganderbal (J&K)

Farah Farooq, Quadri Javeed Ahmad Peer, N. A. Ganaie, Sheema Khan, . Tabina

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 60-64
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1430702

The present research was carried out in district Ganderbal of Jammu and Kashmir to study the entrepreneurial behavior of grape growers. . By using proportionate allocation method, a sample of 120 grape growers was taken for collecting the primary data with the aid of an interview schedule. Data derived from the interviewees of the sampled growers was examined using competent statistical procedures. Most (73%) of the respondents showed medium, high (15%) and low (12%) entrepreneurial behavior. In order of ranking the constraints were reported as, most 85% of the growers reported that no bowers were provided to them’, 75.83% percent of the growers indicated the small fruit size of the berries’, 61.66% reported the irregular rains’, 35% indicated onset of diseases’, 29.16% indicated fluctuation of market prices, 19.16% reported distant markets’ and 15% indicated no net availability’.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of Chickpea Varieties under Rainfed Condition of Dharmapuri District, Tamil Nadu, India

M. Sangeetha, K. Indhumathi, P. S. Shanmugam

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 65-70
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1430703

Chickpea is an important pulse crop grown during rabi season in black soil areas of Dharmapuri District. Among the various biotic and abiotic factors, the drought stress and fusarium wilt disease incidence are the major problems that reduces the chickpea yield to a greater extent. To overcome the above problems, the varieties viz., JAKI 9218 and GBM 2 were studied in comparison with farmers practice i.e., CO 4 for identification of suitable drought and disease tolerant high yielding variety for prevailing rainfed condition. The results revealed that JAKI 9218 and GBM 2 were found promising under rainfed condition and recorded the grain yield of 1008 and 933 kg/ha as compared to 808 kg/ha in CO 4. The variety JAKI 9218 proved to be superior with a yield increase of 24.7 per cent over CO 4 and 8.04 per cent over GBM 2. The pod borer and fusarium wilt disease incidence were lower in the variety JAKI 9218. The highest net income of Rs. 22158 /- and benefit cost ratio of 2.16 was realized in JAKI 9218 and the lowest net income of Rs. 13958 /- and benefit cost ratio of 1.77 was realized in farmers practice i.e., CO 4. It is concluded from the study that the chickpea variety JAKI 9218 can be recommended for large scale cultivation under rainfed condition of Dharmapuri district for realizing higher return by the farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Geospatial Techniques for Paddy Crop Acreage and Yield Estimation

Krishna Desai, N. L. Rajesh, U. K. Shanwad, N. Ananda, B. G. Koppalkar, B. K. Desai, V. Rajesh, Kirana Kumara, . Chandralekha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 71-79
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1430704

Paddy crop acreage and yield estimation using geospatial technology were carried out in North Eastern Dry Zone (Zone-2) covering Shorapur taluk, Yadgir district, Karnataka state, India, during rabi late sown or summer 2016-17 season. The study area is located between 16° 20ꞌ to 17° 45ꞌ north latitude and 76° 04ꞌ to 77° 42ꞌ east longitude, at an elevation of 428 meters above mean sea level. The RESOURCESAT-1 LISS III satellite image of 31st January 2017, 24th February 2017, 20th March 2017 and LANDSAT-8 of 15th April 2017 were used for paddy crop acreage estimation at taluk level. Paddy signatures were identified using ground truth GPS data and then, these temporal imageries were subjected to NDVI classification and estimated the paddy biomass and further validated with the ground-truthing in corresponding to Green Seeker NDVI value. The estimated paddy crop acreage through imagery NDVI were 2145.75 ha, 17602.21 ha, 19838 ha and 23004.01 ha area during Jan-2017, Feb-2017, March-2017 and April-2017 respectively. When these results were compared with acreage estimates as reported by the State Department of Agriculture, shown a relative deviation of 11.41, 35.78, 23.01& 3.89 per cent for Jan-2017, Feb-2017, March-2017 and April-2017 respectively. Therefore, LandSat-8 NDVI paddy acreage has showed significantly on par with the ground truth data at the crop harvest stage. Relative deviation of 10.75 for yield comparison among imagery NDVI biomass yield with the DOA yield estimation infer that NDVI biomass yield estimation would give better result at 90 days after sowing. Positive correlation of NDVI values with estimated acreage and yield, indicates that application of remote sensing techniques for forecasting paddy biomass yield is more accurate, economical and could be beneficial to the policy makers for quick decisions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nature and Extent of Problems Faced by Working Women in Rural and Urban Areas: A Sociological Study

Priyanka Rani, Rashmi Tyagi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 80-88
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1430705

Though a number of constitutional amendments were made for women’s social, economic and political benefits but still there is no radical change in their situation. The outdated family structure, patriarchal ideology of the home being a women’s ‘real domain’ and marriage being ultimate goal and destiny has not changed much. In India working woman faces so many problems associated with her time allocation while engaging outside in income earning activities. It may be health related or physical, psychological, economical, social and family problems etc. The present study was conducted in Hiasr-II block of Hisar district on 120 women working in government and private sectors with the aim to explore their problems. The results concluded that majority of the respondents were in 31-50 years of age belonged to general caste and nuclear families and were in government jobs. Majority of the respondents were disagreed on the statements that workplace environment was not very pleasant and safe, however majority of rural respondents also reported inappropriate work environment with lack of power-supply and heat/cold facilities. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Residual Toxicity of Newer Insecticide Molecules against Shoot and Fruit Borer of Okra

Sagar Anand Pandey, Saswati Sahu, V. K. Koshta, Monika Devi, Pradeep Mishra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 89-97
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1430706

Seven new molecule insecticides viz., Deltamethrin, Lambda-cyhalothrin, Emamectin benzoate, Indoxacarb, Bifenthrin, Rynaxypr and Flubendiamide were bio-assayed against okra shoot and fruit borer (Earias vittella) to study the residual toxicity on Okra at College of Agriculture, Raipur during the Rabi applied season(2014-15 and 2015-16).. On the basis of average LT50 values, the order of toxicity was Emamectin Benzoate > Indoxacarb > Lambda-Cyhalothrin > Rynaxypr > Flubendiamide > Deltamethrin > Bifenthrin against okra shoot and fruit borer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cause and Effect of Farmers’ Suicides in Chhattisgarh, India

H. K. Niranjan, R. S. Chouhan, H. O. Sharma, S. S. Thakur

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 98-107
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1430707

The study examined the cause and effect of suicide on family members in Surajpur, Chhattisgarh, India. Suicide victims in this district in 2014 were highest among all districts of the state. Cases were examined based on production and market risk, sociological, psychological and other family related factors. Primary data were collected through survey and interview schedule while secondary data were gathered from the office of the Additional Director General of Police. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze data. Out of 194 suicide cases, 50 were purposively selected as sample size. Results revealed that, prior to suicide, victims mingled with their own family members (64%) and neighbors/households friends (68%). It was also found out that major causes of suicide were family problems and commitments, followed by marriage related issues. Effect of farmers’ suicides showed that households had lost their major provider (38%), and had felt insecurity in the family (42%). The major causes of suicides prevailing were found to be social and farming related causes. Among these social related causes were found to be more prominent as compared to farming related causes. The prominent causes of farmers’ suicide in Chhattisgarh as recognised by the majority of the respondents were found to be family problems, illness drug abuse/alcoholic addiction, fall in social reputation, extra martial affairs and quarrel between victims and others. None of farmers was found to commit suicides due to poverty.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimates of Genetic Variability in Selected Advanced Breeding Lines of Groundnut for Morphological, Yield and Its Contributing Traits under Imposed End-of-Season Drought Stress

G. Chandrashekhara, Hasanali Nadaf, B. N. Harish Babu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 108-118
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1430708

Aim: To study genetic variability for morphological, yield and its contributing traits in forty groundnut genotypes.

Study Design: Randomized complete block design with two replications.

Place and Duration of Study: College of Horticulture, Hiriyur, University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Navile, Shivamogga, Karnataka, India during Rabi 2016-17.

Methodology: Forty genotypes of groundnut were evaluated under irrigated and imposed end-season drought conditions. Crop was taken care as per recommended package of practices. Stress was imposed by withholding irrigation at pod development stage (@90DAS) for 20 days in drought block. However, control block was provided with regular irrigations. Observations on different morphological, yield and its related traits were recorded on randomly sampled five plants per genotype per replication in both stress-full and stress-free environments. The mean data was subjected to statistical analysis using Genstat 14.1 software.

Results: The analysis of variance revealed that highly significant differences observed for all the traits even at p <0.01 level indicating the sufficient variability exist among the entries for the traits under study. High genotypic and phenotypic co-efficient of variation, high heritability coupled with high genetic advance over mean was observed for number pods per plant, immature pods per plant, pod yield per plant and hectare, harvest index, kernel yield per plant, fresh weight of seedlings and kernels per plant under moisture deficit condition.

Conclusion: It’s a clear evidence for lesser influence of environment and predominance additive gene action in germplasm for these traits which offers opportunity for selection, unvaryingly direct selection for these traits could be effective for developing high yielding drought tolerant genotypes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Standardization of Optimum Planting Time on Yield and Fruit Quality of Banana var. Grand Naine under Mid Hill Condition of Arunachal Himalaya

Thejangulie Angami, Homeswar Kalita, Jitendra Kumar, D. Ramajayam, Raghuveer Singh, Anup Chandra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 119-124
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1430709

A field experiment was executed during 2013-16 at ICAR Research Farm, Gori, ICAR (Research Complex) for NEH Region, Arunachal Pradesh Centre, Basar to find out the optimum planting time for yield and quality attributes of Grand Naine banana. The experiment was laid out in RBD having five treatments with four replications. The study divulged that the planting dates had a significant influence on growth, yield and fruit quality of banana. Fruits harvested from mid-may planting recorded the highest in yield based parameters viz. number of hands per bunch (13.17), number of fingers per bunch (162.63) and bunch weight (24.67 kg) respectively. However, fruits from mid-june planting exhibited the highest finger weight (148.67 g) which was statistically at par with mid-may planting (147.54 g). It was noted that plants of mid-june planting produced the maximum number of functional leaves at the shooting stage (15.38) which was found at par with mid-may planting (15.13).The fruit quality attributes like sugars, ascorbic acid, acidity were also influenced by planting times whereas it had no significant effect on TSS content of the fruits. Fruits from mid-may plant recorded the highest TSS (21.03°Brix), minimum acidity (0.23%) and highest ascorbic acid content (14.99 mg per 100 g) followed by mid-june planting with TSS, acidity and ascorbic acid content of (20.56°Brix), (0.24%) and (14.47 mg per 100 g) respectively. Starch content was found maximum in fruits from mid-august planting (2.08%) whereas, minimum starch content was recorded in fruits from mid-june planting (0.71%) inferring that mid-may is the optimum time for planting for Grand Naine variety of banana under subtropical mid-hill conditions of Arunachal Pradesh justifying future actions in the expansion of planting.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling Distributed Agile Software Development for Big Data Projects: Evolution in Process

Ali Sever

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 125-134
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1430710

Although big data has been around for ages, finding the right development method for the specific domain of big data has always been challenging. Many companies are taking maximum benefits from the large amount of data that is available to them. However, in order to make use of this large amount of data, developing and maintaining a dependable and robust software system is a major problem today. We proposed an enriched nonlinear distributed agile development model in big data applications. The model makes it possible to overcome the difficulties of traditional software process models by pairing up evolving technology of big data and distributed agile methodology. In the paper we, first, present arguments behind the multi-agent model. Next, it is shown how it may help improve the interaction between big data and software development project life cycle. Finally, we suggest how the proposed model can be tested experimentally to show how devising a multi-agent computational system may offer an efficient way of monitoring, managing, and deploying software products in big data applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Community Participation in Tourism Activities in Phong Nha - Ke Bang National Park

Tu Luc Tran

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 135-144
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1430721

Sustainable tourism development is an indispensable trend of the world tourism industry, aiming to bring socio-economic and environmental harmony but not affect the future of the local community. In particular, the participation of the people in tourism activities plays an important role, they must be empowered in planning activities, managing tourist destinations and providing advice to management agencies. The State develops policies, manages and implements destination tourism planning. With the objective to assess the participation and factors affecting the participation of the community in tourism development, the study compares the theoretical model of Pretty (1995), Sherry Arnstein (1971) and Cevat Tosun (1999) From there choose the model of Pretty (1995) as a research base with the scale of participation is 7 steps and scales to evaluate the influencing factors according to groups: The people's awareness group on tourism has 6 criteria; group of motivating factors has 15 criteria; The barrier factor group has 11 criteria. Based on that, the study conducts the participation assessment and the factors affecting people's participation in tourism activities in Phong Nha – Ke Bang National Park where is a famous tourist destination in Vietnam, twice honored by UNESCO as a world natural heritage site with outstanding geological - geomorphological criteria and biodiversity criteria with a top-valued cave system world.

Open Access Original Research Article

Delineation of Efficient Cotton Growing Regions of Tamil Nadu

Rajashree Khatua, S. Panneerselvam, V. Geethalakshmi, M. Kumar, P. Jeyakumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 145-151
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1430736

Cotton is an immensely important crop for the sustainable economy of India and livelihood of the Indian cotton farming community. Identification of potential regions would help in increasing the productivity, ensures better utilization of available resources and avoid wastage of resources in the inefficient zones. Efficient cropping zones of the Cotton crop of Tamil Nadu were keyed out with 30 years data (1985-2015) using Relative Yield Index (RYI) and Relative Spread Index (RSI). The results reveled that in Tamil Nadu, fifteen districts were found for MECZ and three for ECZ. Coimbatore is most essential area for cotton crop. Similarly eight districts are coming under LECZ because RSI were very less compare to RYI. Tiruchirapalli and Ramanathapuram both the district have less RYI and RSI indicating NECZ for cotton crop.

Open Access Review Article

Seaweed: A Novel Organic Biomaterial

Nidhi Verma, Anita R. Sehrawat, Digvijay Pandey, Binay K. Pandey

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1430690

The seaweeds are macroscopic living resources having significant amount of growth regulators, macronutrients as well as micronutrients which are essential for the growth of crop plants. The fertilizers that are derived from seaweeds are known as new generation fertilizers or modern fertilizers which are devoid of harmful effects of chemicals. Seaweeds contains considerable amount of nutrients which are easily absorbed by plants hence beneficial for the positive growth of crop plants. In the present situation seaweeds are found to be more suitable to crop plants to increase growth parameters as compared to chemical fertilizers. The positive effects of seaweed have been observed in many crops like Cajanus cajan, Abelmoschus esculentus, Arachis hypogea, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, Lablab purpureus, Cicer arietinum etc. This review helps in encouraging the students and research scholars towards the uses of different seaweeds on growth and development of many crop plants.

Open Access Review Article

The Potential Influence of Forests and Climate Change on the Environmental Fates of Organic Compounds in Tropical Watersheds

Kayon S. C. Barrett, Foday M. Jaward

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 41-54
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1430699

This exploratory review synthesizes current knowledge on the use, exposures and environmental fates of PBDEs, dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, and current-use pesticides, as well as purports the potential for forests and climate change to affect their fates at the catchment scale in tropical regions. Organic compounds such as these are under global scrutiny because of their widespread distribution and potential for adverse health impacts. PBDEs and current-use pesticides are produced for their beneficial services as flame retardants and pest controls, respectively, whereas dioxins and furans are the by-products of combustion events involving many organic compounds. However, these chemicals distribute to various environmental media and are associated with adverse health effects, including neurotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Previous studies have shown that temperate and boreal forests influence the environmental fates of some organic chemicals by transferring them from the atmosphere to the soils, therefore potentially reducing atmospheric exposure. Changing climate variables, such as temperature change, are also expected to be important in the environmental distribution of organic contaminants. However, the effect of these factors, forests and climate change, on the environmental fates of organic pollutants in tropical watersheds have not been adequately examined. Knowledge of the fates and impacts of organic pollutants in tropical regions is critical for environmental management and policy development therein, and this review therefore explores the potential influences of forests and climate change on contaminant fates in tropical regions. Finally, the areas where more research is needed to assist in these endeavors are elucidated.