Open Access Case Study

The Physiognomy of Flooding and Flood Disasters in Nigeria: Stakeholders’ Perception of Flooding Events of Ogbaru in Anambra State

F. O. Ezeokoli, K. C. Okolie, A. I. Aniegbuna

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v33i630108

Aim: This study evaluates and establishes the nature and characteristics of flooding and flood disaster in Ogbaru.

Study Design: It was a survey research, where questionnaires were distributed to heads of the selected households and building practitioners in the study area. Likewise, physical observations were carried out to substantiate the findings of the questionnaire survey.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted in Ogbaru Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria for a period of 2 years.

Methodology: Data were collected through structured questionnaire administered to the selected building construction practitioners and occupants in Ogbaru. In addition, interviews and direct observation survey were conducted to substantiate the validity of the questionnaire. Accordingly, a total of three hundred and eighty-four (384) questionnaires were distributed and a total of two hundred and ninety-three (293) questionnaires were completed and returned. This corresponds to a response rate of 76.3%.  Data collected were analyzed using mean score, standard deviation and t-test.

Results: The survey found that flooding is a regular phenomenon for the last five years in Ogbaru with a depth ranging from medium to shallow and not more than 1.8 m deep. The velocity of flow is either laminar or moderate but not up to 3m/s in nature while the intensity of flow & destruction significantly varies across the local government area. The flood disaster lasts for more than a month in most areas and moves with floating debris lowering the ground surface and removing refilled earth of the foundation of buildings. Over 90% of the residents of Ogbaru had experienced flood hazards which have affected their houses and those of their neighborhood.

Conclusion: The study concluded by recommending that the nature and characteristics of flooding in the study area should be thoroughly examined and considered before any construction/ mitigation action will be deployed in Ogbaru.

Open Access Short Research Article

A Sequential Third Order Rotatable Design in Four Dimensions

Nyakundi O. Cornelious

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v33i630110

In research, experiments must be performed at pre-determined levels of the controllable factors, meaning that an experimental design must be selected prior to experimentation. Once an experimenter has chosen a polynomial model of suitable order, the problem arises on how best to choose the settings for the independent variables over which he has control. A particular selection of settings or factor levels at which observations are to be taken is called a design. A design may become inappropriate under special circumstances requiring an increase in factors or levels to make it more desirable. In agriculture for instance, continuous cultivation of crops may exhaust previously available mineral elements necessitating a sequential appendage of the mineral elements which become deficient in the soil over time. In this study, a fifty six points third order rotatable design is constructed by adding a set of factors to a second order  rotatable design in four dimensions and a practical hypothetical example is given by converting coded level to natural levels.  This design permits a response surface to be fitted easily and provide spherical information contours besides the economic use of scarce resources in relevant production processes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Training on Food Processing among Women in Haryana, India

Nisha ., Seema Rani

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v33i630103

The study was conducted in seven villages purposively selected namely Dhanakurd, Ramayan and Beer Hansi from Hansi-I block, Ludas and Patan from Hisar-II block, Sulakhni and Balawas from Hisar-I block. A training program regarding food processing was very useful among trainees, with maximum training effectiveness score of picking of seasonal vegetables (WMS 2.43), preservation of fruits and vegetables (WMS 2.26), milk and milk products (WMS 2.40) and baking (WMS 2.22). Regarding the coverage of training, it was found that content of the training was considered very well covered by most of the respondents (61.54%) followed by (31.73%) respondents who considered training content as of medium level. The methodology used in training programmed was considered very well by nearly half of the respondents irrespective of the type of training. The working environment was also rated as excellent and very good by (40.00%) of the respondents. Rest of the respondents (15.38%) considered the working environment as good. Majority of the respondents found training material as very much useful and practical sessions satisfactory. Nearly half of the respondents (52.88%) were ready to start training on food processing as an income generating activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Temperature on Mineral Precipitation Sequence of Lake Katwe Brine during Evaporation

Joseph Ddumba Lwanyaga, Hillary Kasedde, John Baptist Kirabira

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v33i630104

The effect of temperature on the mineral precipitation sequence during evaporation of the natural brine from lake Katwe was studied. Laboratory isothermal evaporation experiments at temperatures (30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 ) using the original Katwe surface brine were undertaken. PHREEQC, a solubility software was used to predict the crystallization paths at the different study temperatures. The mineralogy and morphology of the precipitates were determined by the XRD and SEM techniques, respectively. The precipitation sequence majorly started with sulphates followed by chlorides and lastly carbonates at all temperatures after precipitation of the calcium-magnesium carbonates. Halite emerged the most dominant mineral, with thernadite, trona and glaserite following respectively. Thenardite, glaserite and burkeite precipitation flourished at lower temperatures (30 and 40 ) whereas soda ash precipitation flourished at higher temperatures (60 and 70 . Halite equally precipitated at all temperatures thus not showing a temperature preference in this study.  Temperature variation is a key design parameter in the extraction of mineral salts from the Brines of Lake Katwe.

Open Access Original Research Article

Emodin Isolation from the Leaves of Pteridium acquilinum

M. E.. Khan, E. T. Williams, A. Abel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v33i630106

This study was designed to isolate and characterize the active compound(s) from the leaf extract of Pteridiumacquilinum after the aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts had been investigated on some female rats hormones One anthraquinoneemodin (1, 3, 8-trihydroxy-6-methyl-anthra-quinone) was successfully purified from the methanolic extract of the medicinal plant by Chromatography (VLC, TLC and Sephadex). The initial elution was with n hexane– ethyl acetate–methanol (18:22:3, v/v/v) as the two-phase solvent system and yielded 3.4 mg of emodin. The Vacuum Liquid Chromatography (VLC), fraction (from the methanol extract) was analyzed by Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and the chemical structure of the anthraquinone was confirmed by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR analyses. This is the first time this anthraquinone, emodin is being reported from P. aquilinum.

Open Access Original Research Article

Time - Temperature Combination of Ohmic Heating System for Parboiling of Paddy

Aaradhana Patel, Mohan Singh, A. K. Rai, M. A. Khan, S. K. Garg

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v33i630109

The technique for parboiling of paddy through ohmic heating was one of the best and fastest technique, which takes minimum time for complete a process due to high voltage of electric current. The aim of this study was to define the time & temperature combination of ohmic heating system for parboiling of paddy. The parboiling of paddy was a hydrothermal treatment, given prior to milling process of paddy and the methodology, applied for parboiling of paddy through ohmic heating setup was carried out in three steps, i.e. soaking, steaming and drying of parboiled paddy. The result was found after study, the temperature and time profiles of parboiled paddy through ohmic heating at different voltage gradients i.e., 15.71, 16.07, 16.43, 16.79 and 17.14 V/cm up to temperature of 96°C for paddy and water mixture of 1:3, (500g paddy and 1500ml of water). The best result was found on 17.4 V/cm (voltage gradient) at 96°C temperature for 136 min and after milling of parboiled paddy the recovery of head rice yield was found 85.63 percent. So it was the most advantageous aspect for parboiling of paddy through ohmic heating for increase the head rice yield and reduce the breakage percentage of rice kernel.

Open Access Review Article

Developments on Baby Strollers over the Last Decade

B. X. Koh, Umar Nirmal, M.Y. Yuhazri

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-25
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v33i630105

It has come to attention that the interest of baby stroller design is still encouraged and popular among worldwide researches and consumers. A visual history and timeline of invented baby strollers from 1973 to today’s baby strollers was drafted. Moreover, a ten years review on multiple designs of baby strollers was done ranging from the year 2008 to 2018. Based on the review, there are many possible ways to design a baby stroller which its sole purpose is to transport a baby in a much easier method. Through this review, it is noticeable that baby stroller inventors are implementing additional functions like rocking mechanism, diaper changing table, and others. The use of electronic devices in strollers is slowly implemented as the years increases, although there always potential ideas for improvements. Graphs and tables on baby strollers by their popularity and brand was drawn with online shopping websites as a resource to recognize consumer’s interest. Besides that, potential improvements and ideas on the design and fabrication of baby strollers were suggested to fit in with the impending society and future generation.

Open Access Review Article

Calcium-related Post-harvest Physiological Disorders of Fruits and Vegetables in Eswatini: A Review

Kwanele A. Nxumalo, Christinah Matsuane, Michael T. Masarirambi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v33i630107

Calcium (Ca2+) related physiological disorders of fruits and vegetables are abnormalities of fruits and vegetables which are not caused by infectious diseases, insects, nematodes or animals. Fruit and vegetable abnormalities occur due to environmental stress, nutritional deficiencies or excess on the plant. In this study, information was sought through informal surveys, review of literature and interviews with key post-harvest handling and storage participants and direct observation of fruits and vegetables in the markets. Calcium related post-harvest physiological disorders of fruits and vegetables encountered in this study included: cavity-spot, black end and cork, bronzing, skin freckles, fruit and crown, fasciation, soft-nose/spongy-tissue, granulation, low temperature breakdown/flesh browning, water-core, senescent-breakdown, superficial-scald, bitter pit, leaf tip-burn, golden specks and blossom-end rot. Post-harvest physiological disorders result in direct economic losses and pose a threat to food and nutritional security. Various ways of alleviating particular Ca2+ related post-harvest related physiological disorders are suggested e.g. addition of Ca2+ containing fertilisers and Ca2+ sprays.