Open Access Original Research Article

Outdoor Gamma Dose Rates and Excess Lifetime Cancer Risks Due to Exposure Rates at Salt Water Lakes, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

B. U. Nwaka, G. O. Avwiri, P. I. Enyinna

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/39145

Exposure rates, gamma dose rates and excess lifetime cancer risk around saltwater lakes in Okposi Okwu and Uburu town, Ebonyi State, Nigeria were carried out, in situ, using two nuclear radiation meters (Radalert – 100 and Digilert – 50) and geographical position system (GPS). Measurements were taking randomly (at about 5 cm to 20 cm away from each lake) in thirty one (31) sampling locations each around the saltwater lakes at the standard level of one meter (1 m) above the ground to determine the exposure rates (in mRh-1). Outdoor absorbed dose rate (DOut), outdoor annual effective dose (AEDOut ) and the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) were evaluated and compared with similar reports in other countries and standards. Comparatively, the exposure rates, DOut, AEDOut  and ELCR values obtained for Uburu were similar to that of Okposi Okwu salt lake traceable to bluish black shale, with minor sandstone and silt lithology of the study locations. The mean results recorded for the two salt lakes exceeded the suggested safety limit of 0.013 mRh-1, 60 nGy h-1, 0.07 mSv y-1 , and 0.290 x 10-3 for general public respectively. In general, the results showed that terrestrial background ionizing radiation due to radionuclides in soil within the salt lakes is relatively higher and chance of developing cancer by immediate populace is very significant. Baseline study has been provided in the locations. Length of time spent within the salt lakes either at nearby farmlands and residential buildings should be minimized. Food crop cultivated near the salt lakes should be investigated for radioactivity concentrations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aspects of Polychaete Habitat Preferences in the Intertidal and Subtidal Zones of Bonny River, Nigeria

John Onwuteaka

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology,
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/39419

Shoreline Intertidal and Midchannel–subtidal polychaete assemblages of the Bonny River in Nigeria were studied during the months of July, August, September and October 2013 to represent the wet season and December 2013, January 2014, February to March 2014 to represent the dry season. The study showed evidence of Polychaete differences in the species associations that occurred in the intertidal and subtidal habitats along stations on the Bonny River. The cluster analysis from a presence-absence model revealed two groups of Specialists and one group of Generalists. Within the Generalist category, the abundance model revealed three (3) sub-Generalist associations that indicated habitat preferences within stations. The study determined the presence of a generalist-specialist continuum between habitats from Bonny to Iwofe along the Bonny River. Based on the incidence model (presence-absence), the generalist-specialist associations coexisted in a non-linear pattern of habitat-preference between stations. Habitat preference among the Polychaete species was highest for Generalists only at Bonny station (58%). They coexisted with Specialists at Opudakiri (18%), Okrika (15%), Isaka (3%) and Iwofe (6%). For the Specialists, habitat preference between the intertidal and subtidal was interspersed between stations without a discernible pattern at Bonny (33%:13%), Opudakiri (38%:41%), Okrika (13%:21%), Isaka (16%:10%) and Iwofe (9%:0%). Altogether, fine differences in habitat preference were shown for the twenty-eight (28) Generalists. Only two species of Generalists, namely Glycera tridactyla, and Notomastus aberans, had the highest distribution on the basis of their occurrence at five (5) of the intertidal and subtidal stations at Bonny, Opudakiri, Okrika, Isaka and Iwofe. Similar fine-tuned differences were inferred from preferences shown by the Specialists at the intertidal locations between stations. Three species, namely Neanthes sp., Nephthys assimilis and Sigambra tentaculata emerged as those with the highest overall distribution among the intertidal specialists having occurred in five stations from Bonny to Iwofe stations. In contrast, there was no wide overall habitat preference shown by any of the Polychaete species among the midchannel subtidal specialists. Only one species, Sabillides sp., had narrow occupancy in two stations at the mouth of Bonny River, namely Bonny and Opudakiri. As a result, the lines of evidence show that three ecologically relevant findings are plausible. Firstly the wide distribution of few specialists and generalist show they are neither transitional nor opportunistic. Secondly they indicate ecological fitness in inhabiting either the intertidal or subtidal irrespective of episodic changes to the sediment. Thirdly it is plausible that as in some Polychaete and Fish associations they provide biotic cues that may affect behavioral attributes of recruitment for transitional and opportunistic species. Future research priorities by ecologists can use the observed indicator associations and their resource requirements, to interpret changes in habitat preference as Polychaetes respond to man-made and natural environmental changes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Community Vulnerability in Climate Disaster and Environmental Sustainability: A Botswana Perspective

Kgosietsile Maripe, Morena J. Rankopo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/38850

Community vulnerability to climate related disasters and environmental degradation is a concern for social workers. This concern accentuates when the physical environment from which communities derive livelihoods cannot sustain their subsistence. Social work is a profession that is committed to the development of communities adhering to social justice, human rights, and respect for diversity amongst people and cultures. It advocates for sustainable community development and protection of people from environmental hazards and risks. While serving the person in the social environment, it seeks to reduce their vulnerability to disasters that could jeopardize sustainable developments in their locality. Globally, the changing weather patterns, environmental pollution, and natural hazards with grave consequences for communities have become burdensome. Climate change has brought about increased flooding, frequent drought episodes, and new health hazards that require researched corporate actions and interventions in communities. The researcher moved by the devastating impacts of disasters in Botswana carried out an empirical study in three localities of the South East Administrative District. The study adopted the mixed methods research design to assess the community preparedness, disaster risk reduction strategies, the role of social workers in enhancing community resilience to disasters, and efforts to promote sustainable environmental, cultural practices. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews, questionnaires, focus group discussions, and review of government policies and reports. A total sample population of 3567 respondents were randomly selected for the quantitative phase and 90 participants were conveniently selected for the qualitative phase. It was found that local communities are vulnerable to floods, windstorms, drought, torrential rains, and wild-fires which negatively impact their livelihoods and degrade the environment. The community vulnerability resonated with their lack of knowledge on climate change, hazards and risks, lack of hazard zone map. The article recommends a community-based disaster strategy for building disaster resilience and risk management capacity. The main concepts in this paper are: climate change, vulnerability, disaster, hazard and risks, and resilience.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Dates of Sowing and Topping on Seed Production of Tossa and White Jute in Red and Laterite Zone of West Bengal

K. Ghosh, B. C. Patra, K. A. Chowdary, S. K. Sarkar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/39685

Aim: To assess the effects of date of sowing and topping on seed production of tossa and white jute.

Design: Split plot.

Place and Duration of Study: Field experiment was conducted during Kharif season of 2014 and 2015 at Regional Research Sub-station, Raghunathpur, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Purulia, West Bengal, India.

Methodology: Two separate experiments were carried out on tossa jute, Corchorus olitorius L.(cv. JRO-8432) and white jute, Corchorus capsularis L. (cv.JRC-698), each having 3 replications, with 3 main plots of dates of sowing (D1-15th June, D2-15th July and D3-15th August) and 4 sub plots for topping treatments [T1-No topping, T2-Topping at 30 Days After Sowing (DAS),T3-Topping at 45 DAS and T4-Topping at 60 DAS] under rainfed condition.

Results: In both the jute varieties, the first date of sowing (15th June) proved superiority over other sowing dates irrespective of topping, however, topping at 45 DAS revealed best results as compared to other topping treatments in both the years. First date of sowing (15th June) along with topping at 45 DAS (30th July) recorded the highest number of primary branches plant-1, number of pods plant-1and the highest seed yield which contributed to significantly higher gross and net return in both the varieties in both the years of experimentation.

Conclusion: Early sowing i.e. around 15th June and topping at 45 DAS could be recommended for enhancement of total seed production in olitorius as well as capsularis jute in red and laterite zone of West Bengal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) on Trivalent Chromium Electrodeposition

Md. Ehasanul Haque, Md. Asadul Hoque, Md. Mayeedul Islam, Md. Saidul Islam, Chand Mohammad Mustafa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/39200

The effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) was observed on the quality of trivalent chromium electroplating. The thickness and the current efficiency of the Cr3⁺ deposit were decreased with increasing the concentration of PEG, whereas the optical reflectivity and the corrosion resistivity increased. At the higher concentration of PEG (0.3 g/L), the best quality electrodeposition was observed.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Roof Failures in and around Ibadan, Nigeria: Causes, Effects and Remedy

S. Olu Adesogan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/12078

A random survey was carried out on the preponderances of roof failures and possible causes in Ibadan, a city in Oyo State of South-Western Nigeria. The survey was carried out using structured questionnaire, interview schedule; focus group discussion (FGD) and personal observations with photographs recording. Information of interest and which were included in the instruments were the types of roof, materials used in the construction of roof trusses and sheathing, age of roof, maintenance practices, causes of failure and their subsequent consequences.

The survey revealed that all categories of roof of different ages are affected in all locations of the city both at the urban and rural areas. The identified causes of roof failures include Poor workmanship, design error; age and environmental forces, materials inadequacy, roof geometry and topographical with relative frequency of occurrence of 30.48%, 14.76%, 10.28%, 18.64%, 14.08%, and 11.76% respectively. The study revealed further that roof failure has economic, social and emotional effects on the affected people. Routine maintenance programme, proper construction, provision of courtyard, adequate drainage, good slope and roof overhang will minimize incidences of roof failures and are these therefore recommended.

Open Access Review Article

Colony Collapse Disorder of Honey Bee: A Neoteric Ruction in Global Apiculture

Debashis Roy, Pranab Debnath, Dibyendu Mondal, Pijush Kanti Sarkar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/38218

For last few years, honey bee disappearance by the destruction of the entire colony attracted the attention of many researchers where they used the term colony collapse disorder (CCD), but, they failed to explain the exact reason of this phenomenon. Many schools of thoughts are there where several causes like Varroa mite, honey bee tracheal mite, fungal pathogen Nosema, neonicotinoid group of pesticides, Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus, migratory bee keeping, genetic factors, and parasitic phorid fly etc. play the key role either singly or in combinations. Investigations are solely needed to pin down a causal relationship among CCD and aforesaid factors those hitherto been considered the case. The study was undertaken to make a detailed idea on CCD, its impact, probable causes, economic importance, controversy etc. by assembling the inferences of a number of global researchers.