Open Access Short Research Article

Diversified Traditional Wooden Implements Used in Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Practices in Ladakh

Nazir Ahmed, Maria Abbas, Asif Malik, Afzal H. Akand, Lyaqat Ali, Bilal Ahmad Lone, M. I. Bhat

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/33907

The traditional wooden tools are the necessities of the daily life of the people of Ladakh region and are linked directly with geographical conditions of the region. A lot of diversity in the wooden tools used by the tribal farmers of Ladakh since ancient times is observed. The tools are made up of different, locally available materials in a unique fashion by the localites. These wooden implements are preferred over modern one’s because of their multipurpose uses. Secondly these traditional implements find wide applicability in the region because of steep terrain, where the scope of mechanized farm implements is very limited. In the present study few important traditional tools of Ladakh have been presented. The important tools viz; chepo, shak, zungba, rzgeem, saddle, khem, khaczhay, thougk, gourgur, butter churner, plough, smeing, rbhat, grookook etc. have been described in detail in this paper.

Open Access Original Research Article

Alkaline Solvolysis of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) in Butan–1–ol Media: Kinetics and Optimization Studies

O. Sanda, E. A. Taiwo, G. A. Osinkolu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/32597

This study was carried out to examine the thermo-chemical decomposition of postconsumer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) in alkaline solution of butan-1-ol. The effect of various process parameters such as reactor temperature, time and sodium hydroxide concentration on the degree of PET degradation and products yield were studied and it was found that the decomposition of PET was essentially complete in an hour, with terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol being the main products. A kinetic study of the process showed that the alkaline solvolysis of PET is a second order reaction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Nutritional Evaluation of Cereal and Pulse Based Biscuits for Diabetic Patients

Karmjeet Kaur, Harpreet Kaur, Kiran Bains

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/34139

Addition or supplementation of legumes and oilseeds into cereal-based foods has many health benefits.

Objective: This study was aimed to analyze the sensory, nutritional and glycemic properties of biscuits from cereal (oats and barley) and legume based (soybean and chickpea) combinations for diabetic patients.

Design: Intervention study. Different blends of salty biscuits were prepared using the cereal and pulses above mentioned.

Subjects: Ten healthy subjects in the age group of 20-40 years were selected from department of Food and Nutrition, Punjab Agricultural University for examining the glycemic index.

Results: Biscuits made from these cereal pulse combinations were highly acceptable and were chosen for nutritional analysis. The results of nutritional analysis showed increased protein (11.72 g/100 g), crude fiber (1.5 g/100 g) and ash content (4.68 g/100 g) and decreased content of carbohydrates (47 g/100 g) in blend containing refined wheat flour, barley and soy flour (25:50:25). Glycemic index of the acceptable and highly nutritious blend (Refined wheat flour, barley and soy flour 25:50:25) was 38.7, whereas for control salty biscuits, it was 84.

Conclusion: The incorporation of barley and soy flour in biscuits in the above ratio lowers the glycemic index of biscuits and it can be recommended to diabetic patients for maintaining blood glucose level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Superluminal Hydrogen Atom in a Constant Magnetic Field in (3+1)-dimensional Spacetime (II)

Emmanuel D. K. Gazoya

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/34195

As has usually been the case in the tradition of some scientific novel ideas, we use the hydrogen atom as a “test particle”, in the context of superluminal dynamical system theory. In Paper (I) of this series, the fundamental effect of an applied external magnetic field on a transversely guided beam of hydrogen-like atoms is uncovered, that of transformation from spherical wave expansion into plane wave function. This leads to an unprecedented concept of a planar helical hydrogen field, with a continuum of linear momentum in (3+1)-dimensional spacetime. Thereupon, we investigate a possible “superluminality” of this field. It turns out that, as in the case of a free Dirac field, the Dirac-hydrogen field accords with the law of conservation of energy and momentum. As a result, the generalized translational velocity component expectation value of the planar Dirac-hydrogen is found to exceed the speed of light, with however, a subluminal minimal velocity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Graph Model Conflict Resolution Approach for Jordan River Basin Dispute

Ahmed E. Al-Juaidi, Tarek Hegazy

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/32446

This paper aims to establish a practical conflict resolution mechanism and applies it to solve the strategic long-term dispute for Jordan River Basin. The paper starts with a brief history of the Jordan River Basin dispute. The paper then presents a game theoretic approach based on the Graph Model technique for conflict resolution, to investigate the Jordan River Basin dispute, considering the complex socio-political aspects involved. The proposed model of defines the courses of actions available to all the involved stakeholders along with their preferences among them. Accordingly, the model applies stability and sensitivity analyses to propose an optimum resolution to the conflict and to examine the sensitivity of such resolution to the uncertainty in stakeholders’ preferences. In this study, three scenarios were investigated with different coalition possibilities among different countries, as follow: (i) Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan; (ii) Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, and Palestine; and (iii) Jordan, Israel, and Palestine. The results suggest that the best resolution for all parties is through combined water and peace treaties. The results also indicate that a peace treaty between Israel and Palestine is the best resolution to the conflicts. The application of the Graph model in this paper shows its practicality and ability to provide each decision maker with a simulation environment to examine the actions and counteractions that take place during the negotiation among the different parties.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Farm Women Awareness for Climate Variability and Its Effect on Water Resources in Punjab

Preeti Sharma, Lakhwinder Kaur, Ritu Mittal, Samanpreet Kaur, Sukhjeet Kaur

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/32513

The study was conducted with the aim to study the extent and level of farm women awareness about climate variability and its effect on water resources. The study was conducted in three agro-climatic zones of Punjab, India. One district from each zone was selected purposively for the investigation. A sample of 120 randomly selected farm women was interviewed. The data was analyzed using appropriate statistical tools like frequency, percentages, mean weighted scores. Majority of the farm women (>60%) are fully aware that pollution, deforestation, paddy straw burning and cultivation of paddy are the reasons for climate change. Most of them (>70%) are fully aware that increase in temperature and variation in rainfall were due to change in climate. Majority of them (80%) are fully aware that change in climate is leading to stress on water resources in Punjab and sixty per cent respondents perceived that more area under paddy cultivation was the major factor responsible for depleting groundwater. Most of the farm women (98%) were fully aware that water is wasted while performing various household tasks like washing of clothes, utensils, cleaning the floor, bathing animals with water pipes etc. The study concluded that majority of the farm women (59%) had medium level of awareness regarding reasons of climate change whereas most of them (80%) had low level of awareness regarding factors accountable for depletion of water. Ninety seven percent respondents had high level of awareness regarding wastage of water while performing household tasks. The study recommended that there is the need to evolve compatible water saving technologies, its effective extension and the enactment of proper legislation to prevent exploitation of water at household level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Weed Control in Direct Seeded Rice Using New Herbicide Combination under Indian Tropical Condition

R. Sathya Priya, C. Chinnusamy, P. Murali Arthanari, P. Janaki

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/34088

Direct seeded rice (DSR) is gaining momentum in India due to acute labour shortage during the peak period of transplanting and shortage of water. Weeds are the major biological constrain in DSR and its management contributes a major share in cost of production, as crop and weed emerge simultaneously and exerts competition right from the beginning of the crop. Field experiments were conducted in rabi 2013 and 2014 to study the effect of new herbicide combination, bispyribac sodium + metamifop 14% SE on weed control in DSR and their residual effect on succeeding greengram. Results revealed that the post-emergence (POE) application of herbicide combination, bispyribac sodium + metamifop 14% SE at 70 g ha-1with wetter recorded significantly lower total weed density (25.78 and 24.19 plants m-2 respectively, during 2013 and 2014), total weed biomass (24.89 g m-2 and 34.56 g m-2 respectively, during 2013 and 2014) and higher weed control efficiency (80.07 and 81.68% respectively, during 2013 and 2014). Application of bispyribac sodium + metamifop 14% SE at 70 g ha-1 along with wetter (100 mL ha-1) recorded higher grain yield of 5676 and 6388 kg ha-1 respectively, during both the years. Weedy check recorded the lower grain yield and recorded the higher weed index of 51.83 and 52.85% respectively, during both the years. Succeeding crop of greengram was not affected by the residue of bispyribac sodium + metamifop 14% SE at all the tested doses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Drought on Chlorophyll, Soluble Protein, Abscisic Acid, Yield and Quality Characters of Contrasting Genotypes of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

R. Sivakumar, G. K. Nandhitha, S. Nithila

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/34347

Impact of drought stress on chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), chlorophyll stability index (CSI), soluble protein, abscisic acid (ABA), yield and quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genotypes was investigated for the assessment of drought tolerance under field conditions in rainout shelter. The drought condition was created first day from transplanting based on Irrigation water (IW):Cumulative Pan Evaporation (CPE) of soil. Experiment was laid out with 10 genotypes by adopting FRBD with three replications and two treatments of 1 IW:CPE and 0.5 IW:CPE. The result revealed that the reductions in chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, chlorophyll stability index (CSI), soluble protein and yield were noticed at drought condition (0.5 IW/CPE). The genotypes LE 114, LE 57, and LE 118 which showed significantly less reduction in the above parameters during drought were considered as drought tolerant. ABA content and quality characters such as total soluble solids (TSS), lycopene content were increased under drought condition. Genotypes LE 1 and LE 125 which recorded the lowest chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, CSI, soluble protein and higher ABA content ultimately poor yield were considered as drought susceptible.

Open Access Review Article

Climate Change and Its Impact on Crop Productivity

Bilal Ahmad Lone, Sameera Qayoom, Purshotam Singh, Zahoor Ahmad Dar, Sandeep Kumar, N. A. Dar, Asma Fayaz, Nazir Ahmad, Lyaket ., M. Iqbal Bhat, Gurdeep Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/34148

The changing patterns in day to day weather situations, rising CO2 concentrations, rising sea level, increasing temperature is an indicative of the fact that climate change being encountered by the life of earth at present. Climate change is caused by natural and anthropogenic factors-the natural being due to the periodic tidal pulls exerted by the astronomical bodies on earth’s atmosphere and the enhanced one’s are due to Changes in the climate through past and present are being evidenced through tephrochronological, dendrochronological, paleonological and archaeological measurements.Climate change has an impact on entire ecosystem, the greatest being on agriculture. Increasing CO2 concentration increases photosynthetic rates in C3 plants, and reduces transpiration due to decreased stomatal aperture, thus increasing water use efficiency Elevated CO2 at 330 ppm raised rice yields by 20% and further increase to 700 ppm increased yield by 26.4%. Increased yield is counteracted by a higher temperature that causes moisture stress, delays the maturity of crops due to increased senescence and reduction in grain filling period. Under warm temperature, 2°C above normal, decline in grain yield was to the tune of 8.4% in rice and 12.2% in wheat. A decline in yield to the tune 12.1% and 8.9% in rice and maize has been reported with the decline in solar radiation by 10% from normal. A yield decline of about 13% has been reported with an increased exposure to UV radiations at 320 nm caused due to ozone depletion. On an average the crop climate models suggest a decline in productivity by 3-17°C with 2°C rise in temperature, suggesting future research to recognize the potential interactions of climatic variables to ameliorate the adverse influence of changing climate on agro ecosystems. Climate change is expected to adversely affect the sustainable development capabilities of most Asian developing countries by aggravating pressures on natural resources and the environment. Development of sustainable cities in Asia with fewer fossil fuel-driven vehicles and with more trees and greenery would have a number of co-benefits, including improved public health. (IPCC 2014). To overcome this we have to Increase crop diversity by inter-cropping and appropriate cropping systems/rotations/land use; Adopt land/water conservation agriculture methods suited to varied agro-climates, balanced use of biocides/chemicals; Increase carbon fixation in the soil by growing deep-rooted crops so as to decrease carbon foot - print; Use water judiciously: more crop/unit of water; Use less fossil fuels; Use more solar/wind sources of energy; Climate smart agriculture needs to be adopted for better tomorrow.

Open Access Review Article

A Survey of Human Deoxyribonucleic Acid

Hassan Kehinde Bello, Kazeem Alagbe Gbolagade

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/32463

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning, and reproduction of all living organisms. The genes in living organisms contain instructions responsible for their characteristics which are transferred from parent to offspring to structure his life. These instructions are encoded in DNA molecule. This Paper presents a survey on DNA molecules in passing instructions from parents to their offspring from one generation to the other.

Open Access Review Article

Brazil Market Outlook for Photovoltaic Solar Energy: A Survey Study

Nathalie da Silva Cavalcanti Monteiro, Rhenyo Augusto Bastos Monteiro, Juliana D’ Angela Mariano, Jair Urbanetz Junior, Cezar Augusto Romano

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/33408

There is great concern worldwide about increased greenhouse gas emissions and the consequences of climate change. Photovoltaic solar energy emerges as an alternative source of renewable energy with low environmental impacts. Through a bibliographical review on the subject, this paper presents an analysis of the scale insertion of this energy in Brazil, demonstrating the benefits that can be generated of this technology, impediments and future perspectives. The conclusion is that Brazil has great potential for the energy generation, collaborating to reduce the environmental impacts as a reduction of the greenhouse gases emission. The barriers to introducing photovoltaic solar energy have been lack of investment, lack of more aggressive incentive programs, technological capacity and professional training.