Open Access Original Research Article

A Blue Mind: A Brain Computer Interface Study on the Cognitive Effects of Text Colors

Raffaella Folgieri, Claudio Lucchiari, Beatrice Cameli

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17821

Aims: The paper reports results obtained from a set of experiments aiming to demonstrate the potentiality of the use of EEG signal detection through BCI devices in improving the analysis and the interpretation of colors-driven cognitive processes. The approach combines Information Technology methods and signal analysis with cognitive science investigation methods, considering the rising interest in these two disciplines in learning sciences.
Study Design: The presented experiment has been designed with the aim to compare the results of the traditional (qualitative and quantitative) cognitive analysis approach with the EEG signal analysis of the evoked potentials collected from participants.
Methodology: A sample of 38 students has been involved in a learning process during which they received visual stimuli based on colour variation. The stimuli concerned both the background of the text to learn and the colour of the characters. The colours represent the sensorial stimulus, while the cognitive task consists in remembering the words appearing on the screen, with different combination of foreground (words) and background colors.
Results and Conclusions: The obtained results show interesting learning effects of primary (RGB) or complementary (CMY) colours as well as EEG correlates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of an Error Correction Technique for Audio Signals Recorded on Optical Compact Disk

A. O. Atijosan, S. A. Adeniran, R. A. Badru

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 12-18
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17352

The occurrence of high random bit error rates alongside long burst errors in playback audio signal recorded on compact disk (CD) poses a problem beyond what the usual Cross Interleaved Reed-Solomon Code (CIRC) may handle. In this paper we propose a technique that makes use of the orthogonality properties of Walsh code to handle these types of errors. Results obtained show that the technique can correct for burst errors exceeding 7000 bits and random errors at Signal to Noise Ratio of -5dB at the recording channel. This performance exceeds that of CIRC in terms of maximum correctible burst error length and random error correction rate. The proposed technique will effectively correct long burst and high random bit errors in playback audio signals recorded on optical CD.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of Clayey Deposits for Traditional Pottery and Brickworks in the North West Region of Cameroon (Central Africa)

S. L. Wouatong Armand, Tchounang Kouonang Serge, Hawa Mohamed, Yerima K. P. Bernard, Melo Chinje Uphie, Njopwouo Daniel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 19-36
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16217

Prospection and characterization studies carried out in the Bamessing area (Nord-West region of Cameroon) has revealed the presence of heterogeneous clayey materials along the lower slopes of Sabga Hill (1240-1320 m altitude) and the upper limits of Ndop plain (approximately 1200 m altitude). Clayey materials identified are dark-grey (on the hill), grey (within the plain) and yellowish (on both the hill and the plain) in color. Raw materials were deposited in the Pan African base. The major phases are kaolinite, illite, hydroxyl-interlayered Na-smectite, chlorite, quartz, gibbsite and goethite. The main clay minerals are composed of kaolinite, illite, hydroxyl-interlayered smectite and chlorite. The whole-rock chemical composition is characterized by silica (< 47 to 66% SiO2), alumina (15 to 20% Al2O3) and iron (3 to 5% Fe2O3). Mineralogical and geochemical properties of the materials presented and discussed in this work indicate that the clayey materials of the Bamessing area have a good potential for manufacture of pottery, bricks and tiles.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Contamination by Refined Crude Oil Using Lumbricus terrestris as Toxicity Indicator at a Petroleum Product Depot, Ibadan, Nigeria

Oladele A. Oluwayiose, Shade J. Akinsete, Godson R. E. E. Ana, Ademola M. Omishakin

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 37-46
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17923

Refined petroleum products may contain toxic compounds as additives causing environmental pollution, with adverse effects on living organisms. The study assessed the ecotoxicological effects and level of soil contamination of the tank farm area at a petroleum product depot in Ibadan, Nigeria.
Surface soils (0-15 cm) and earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) were sampled at four different tank areas; petroleum motor spirit (PMS), regular motor spirit (RMS), automotive gas oil (AGO) and dual purpose kerosene (DPK) as well as control site without prior petrochemical activities. Concentrations of heavy metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and gas chromatography mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS). Earthworm’s lysosomal membrane stability, a biomarker was also determined using the neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay.
The results showed that soil lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations significantly (P<.05) varied from 831.9 to 2055.8 mg/kg and 0.8 to 6.3 mg/kg respectively while Pb and Cd concentrations in earthworms varied from 101.3 to 328.8 mg/kg and 0.08 to 0.26 mg/kg respectively. The average NRRT observed at AGO, DPK and RMS tank farm areas were 28.3, 38.3 and 46.7 minutes respectively, implying a possible compromised state of the sampled earthworm’s lysosomal membrane. Soil-and earthworm-accumulated Pb significantly correlated with NRRT (r2=-0.65, P<.05; r2=-0.94, P<.01 respectively). A naphthalene compound (2.4%) was found in soil samples around the PMS tank area. Generally, soil Pb concentration of the study area exceeded the USEPA permissible concentration (400 mg/kg) and detected naphthalene indicated soil contamination with potential harm to humans and soil organisms. This also, suggests possible importation into Nigeria of petroleum products still containing Pb.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nozzle Shape Optimization to Achieve the Maximum Gain in the GDLs

A. M. Tahsini

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 47-52
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17530

The geometry of a divergent nozzle of the gas dynamic laser is optimized to achieve the maximum possible gain in an optical cavity. The problem is numerically studied using two-dimensional computation of the governing equations beside the conjugate gradient method for the shape optimization. The system of governing equations is solved with a finite volume approach using a structured grid in which the advection upstream splitting method is used to calculate the convective numerical fluxes. The finite difference approximation approach is used to calculate the sensitivity matrix coefficient of the optimization procedure. The results show that the optimum geometry of the considered problem can improve the maximum small signal gain as much as about 9 percent in comparison with the simple linear nozzle. The steady state solution of the equations is considered here.

Open Access Original Research Article

Automated Detection of Breast Cancer’s Indicators in Mammogram via Image Processing Techniques

J. O. Olaleke, A. O. Adetunmbi, O. O. Obe, O. G. Iroju

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 53-64
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/13675

Aims: The detection of abnormalities in mammographic images is an important step in the diagnosis of breast cancer. The indicators of cancer in mammograms can be in form of calcification, mass and stellate lesion. This paper proposed a two-stage procedure for the detection of these cancer’s indicators.
Methodology: Twenty images were used for the study. The images were obtained from Mammographic Image Analysis Society (miniMIAS) database. The images were pre-processed and enhanced using top hat filtering method and the enhanced images were segmented using Otsu’s method. Four features were extracted and selected from the mammographic images using Gray Level Concurrence Matrix (GLCM). The features extracted and selected include energy, homogeneity, contrast, and correlation. Subtractive clustering and fuzzy logic techniques were employed for the classification of the cancer’s indicators in the mammograms. The implementation of the image processing techniques was done with matrix laboratory.
Results: The result showed that seven of the images were affected by stellate lesion, nine of the images were affected by microcalcification while four of the images were affected by mass.
Conclusion: The method presented in this paper would enhance the detection of cancerous cells in the breasts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Tilt Angle on Flat-Plate Solar Thermal Collector Systems

Abdulkadir Kocer, Ismet Faruk Yaka, Gozde Tugce Sardogan, Afsin Gungor

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 77-85
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17576

Aims: The performance of a solar collector is highly influenced by its orientation and its angle of tilt with the horizon. Both the orientation and tilt angle change the solar radiation reaching the surface of the collector. Previous studies show that south is the optimum orientation direction. By utilizing maximum solar energy through the optimum tilt, we are able to harness the energy needed without polluting our environment. It reduces the CO2 emissions in the atmosphere which is a major culprit for Global warming.
Study Design: In this study, the optimum tilt angle for the south facing single axis solar collector has been determined in order to maximize the system performance.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Akdeniz University, 2014-2015.
Methodology: The equations which calculate total solar radiation falling on tilted surface for optimum tilt angle the monthly, the seasonally, the semi-annually, the annually, latitude ±15° and latitude are solved with a computer code which is written in MATLAB and should be modular to allow users to update component modules easily as new findings become available.
Results: The results convey that the optimum tilt angle changed between 1° (June) and 65° (December) throughout year in Antalya, Turkey. The loss in the amount of collected energy is around 1% if the angle of tilt is adjusted seasonally instead of using βopt for each month of the year.
Conclusion: Energy loss when using the yearly average fixed angle is approximately 7% compared with the monthly optimum tilt.

Open Access Original Research Article

Electrochemical Studies on Aluminium Corrosion in Dilute Alkaline Dispersions of Graphene Oxide

Pradip Kr. Ghosh, Susanta Ghosh, I. Basumallick

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 86-99
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17571

Graphene Oxide (GO) sheet with different degree of exfoliation has been prepared by modified Hummers’ method. These exfoliated GO sheets have been characterized by UV–VIS, FTIR, powder XRD, Raman, Fluorescence, SAED spectroscopy and HR-TEM. Effect of GO exfoliation on Al corrosion in alkaline medium has been studied by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and FESEM methods. The potentiodynamic polarization and weight loss studies reveal that Al corrosion is strongly inhibited due to formation of an ultra thin film of exfoliated GO over Al surface and the inhibition effect highly depends on the degree of exfoliation of GO.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenological Cycles, Thermal Time and Growth Curves of Mango Fruit Cultivars in Subtropical Conditions

Jackson Mirellys Azevedo Souza, Sarita Leonel, Joyce Helena Modesto, Rafael Augusto Ferraz, Bruno Henrique Leite Gonçalves

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 100-107
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/18239

There are many mango cultivars available in different regions. It is about time we analysed their productive behavior in these areas, as well as their phenological performance. This study aimed to evaluate: phenological cycles, thermal time and growth curves of mango fruit cultivars in subtropical conditions. For this study we used the following cultivars: Espada Vermelha, Keitt and Palmer. All the experiments were done at UNESP experimental farm in Sao Manuel (SP), during the agricultural cycle from 2012 to 2013. It was selected 15 branches in each plant, which provided 150 per cultivar. It was determined the number of days of phenological cycles of flowering to fruit ripening, as well as the total number of days to flowering and harvesting. The thermal time was evaluated to each phenological cycle and expressed in accumulation of degree-days. The measurement of the longitudinal diameters (LD) and transverse diameters (TD) of the fruitwere performed in a 12 day’s intervals, from the tenth day after the flowers anthesis, to evaluate the growth curve. Based on the data, it was found that Keitt cultivar requires more days for the fruit to reach physiological maturity and greater accumulation of degree-days to complete its production cycle. The growth curves of the three varieties of fruits have a simple sigmoidal model in function of the days after anthesis.

Open Access Review Article

Effects of Process Variables and a Comparative Study of Methods for Transfer Oil Production from Spent Engine Oil

I. J. Ani, J. O. Okafor, M. A. Olutoye, U. G. Akpan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 65-76
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17578

The influence of process variables on the production of transfer oil from spent engine oil (SEO) is presented in this paper. Various methods for SEO treatment are also highlighted. Process parameters like solvent type, solvent to oil ratio, extraction temperature, adsorbent to oil ratio, adsorption time (contact time), adsorption temperature and base oil to chemical additive ratio greatly influenced regeneration of base oil from SEO using solvent extraction-adsorption method which has also been established to be more advantageous over previous methods used in this process.