Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology https://www.journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology (ISSN:&nbsp;2457-1024)</strong> is dedicated to publish research papers, reviews, case studies and short communications from all disciplines of science and technology. By not excluding papers on the basis of subject area, CJAST facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology 2457-1024 The Outcome of Lumber Microdiscectomy https://www.journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST/article/view/31197 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Low back pain (LBP) is the most common health problem between men and women between 20 and 50. Although most LBP's exact origin remains unknown, it is understood that degenerative damage to the intervertebral disk (IVD) plays a central role in the pathogenic mechanism leading to back pain. The study aims to study the incidence, clinical features, and presentations of the lumbar disc prolapse and clinical outcome of lumbar microdiscectomy for a period of 1 year post operatively.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> 28 male's patient and 22 female patients qualified. The data were obtained by direct interrogation and clinical examination. The information that was taken from the patients includes the patient's age, gender, occupation, and chief complaint, history of present illness, and neurological signs and symptoms. Plain X-ray of the lumbosacral spine obtained for each patient in anteroposterior, lateral view and stress views.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 15 male patients (53.5%) and eight females (36.3%). The most common site for the prolapsed disc was L4-L5 (58%); the next common site was L5-S1 (38%), backache was the most common presenting symptoms. It presents in all 50 patients (100%). Sciatica present in 45 patients (90%), in 13 patients the radiation of the pain was to the right leg, whereas 26 patients have radiation of pain to the left leg and six patients have bilateral radiation, 45 patients (90%) of total 50 patients complaint from backache recovered,36 patients (86.7%) of real 45 patients compliant from sciatica improved, paresthesia represented in 32 patients (64%) and 28 patients (87.5%) of them recovered, whereas 16 patients (32%) had motor weakness and 12 patients (75%) recovered. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Lumbar microdiscectomy may be associated with a more rapid initial recovery in patients with sciatica; most patients had good outcomes with lumbar microdiscectomy.</p> Chateen Jabbar Ali Walid W. Al-Rawi Arjan Mohammed Rasheed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-11 2021-01-11 1 9 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i131197 Unveiling Perturbing Effects of P-R Drag on Motion around Triangular Lagrangian Points of the Photogravitational Restricted Problem of Three Oblate Bodies https://www.journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST/article/view/31201 <p>The perturbing effects of the Poynting-Robertson drag on motion of an infinitesimal mass around triangular Lagrangian points of the circular restricted three-body problem under small perturbations in the Coriolis and centrifugal forces when the three bodies are oblate spheroids and the primaries are emitters of radiation pressure, is the focus of this paper. The equations governing the dynamical system have been derived and locations of triangular Lagrangian points are determined. It is seen that the locations are influenced by the perturbing forces of centrifugal perturbation and the oblateness, radiation pressure and, P-R drag of the primaries. Using the software <em>Mathematica, </em>numerical analysis are carried out to demonstrate how the dynamical elements: mass ratio, oblateness, radiation pressure, P-R drag and centrifugal perturbation influence the positions of triangular equilibrium points, zero velocity surfaces and the stability. Our investigation reveals that, though the radiation pressure, oblateness and centrifugal perturbation decrease region of stability when motion is stable, however, they are not the influential forces of instability but the P-R drag. In the region when motion around the triangular points are stable an inclusion of the P-R drag of the bigger primary even by an almost negligible value of 1.04548*10<sup>-9 </sup>overrides other effect and changes stability to instability. Hence, we conclude that the P-R drag is a strong perturbing force which changes stability to instability and motion around triangular Lagrangian points remain unstable in the presence of the P-R drag.</p> Tajudeen Oluwafemi Amuda Oni Leke Abdulrazaq Abdulraheem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 10 31 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i131201 An Examination of Clan Names and Clan Praises as Anthroponymic Domains in Swati Culture https://www.journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST/article/view/31204 <p>The objectives of this study are to examine and interpret the meanings of the selected clan names and clan praises. Their sequences, laudatory and eulogic views highlight their significances and generic perspectives. In Swati culture, clan name is shared by a nuclear family and passed from father to sons. In patrilineal societies, clan names are vital for maintenance and sustenance of lineage hierarchy. Clan names are commonly called surnames. The prefix <em>sur</em>-in surname is derived from Latin, meaning super, above or beyond. The word, <em>tibongo</em> (clan names) is derived from the verb, <em>bonga </em>(thank; praise). The word, <em>tinanatelo</em> (clan praises) is derived from the verb, <em>nanatela</em> (be genial towards; show courtesy to and praise). Their anthroponymic domains are evident when they are used as address form. Each Swati clan name has a primary or main clan praise which is widely known by the society and almost equivalent to the clan name, for example, <em>Matfonsi</em> (Droplets<u>)</u> –<em>Mjabulase</em><u>!</u> (Ever-elated one), <em>Maphosa </em>(Thrower)-<em>Tsekwane</em> (An owl) and <em>Malindzisa</em> (One who keeps others waiting)-<em>Tfwala </em>(Carry). In addition to the main clan praise, a number of secondary clan praise names follow and make a series of praise phrases. It is evident that all types of praises have their poetic features that are highlighted by bards, onomasticians, folklorists and oral poetry specialists.</p> Jozi Joseph Thwala ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-02-13 2021-02-13 32 46 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i131204 New Media and Crime among Adolescents in Anaocha LGA of Anambra Nigeria https://www.journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST/article/view/31222 <p>New media use has been recently understood as an important issue to be looked into among adolescents, parents and others who deal with adolescents. This study sought to examine the new media and crime among adolescents in Anaocha Local Government Area of Anambra State. The study employed the cross-sectional descriptive design method involving a quantitative approach which included a survey of 224 adolescents between the ages of 13-19 years selected by cluster and simple random sampling techniques from five communities in the LGA. The instrument for data collection was interviewer-administered questionnaire while the Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used in analyzing the data.&nbsp; Findings revealed that phones were the most prevalent new media in use among adolescents particularly the male ones. Also, majority expressed negative view about the influence of the new media on adolescents, with sexting and cyber-bullying as the most common crimes associated with new media. Furthermore, psychological trauma was identified as the major effect of cyber-bullying on adolescent victims. This study recommended enlightenment of adolescents and other stakeholders in order to curtail the level of crimes committed through the new media. Parents and significant others are advised to keep a close watch on their adolescent children and wards while they are browsing the internet, and this will hopefully control criminal activities associated with new media use among adolescents in Anaocha LGA in particular and Nigeria in general.</p> Chelsea C. Adogu Henry N. Chineke Prosper O. U. Adogu Chika F. Ubajaka Amara F. Chizoba Chinelo C. Nduka ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-02-20 2021-02-20 65 78 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i131222 Cognition of Women about the Combination of Foods to Make Iron Bioavailable in the Diet: A Confirmatory Factorial Study https://www.journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST/article/view/31233 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> to validate an instrument designed to assess the knowledge of adult women about combining foods to make dietary iron more bioavailable.</p> <p><strong>Design Study:</strong> cross-sectional, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA).</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration:</strong>&nbsp; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, May 2018 and February 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> sample: n=222 women 15 to 49 years old, not pregnant. The questionnaire was designed on Likert scale. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) and Doornik-Hansen tests were applied, as well as the AFC models with Promax rotation. Convergent validity (CV) and discriminant validity (DV) and reliability (Cronbach's alpha) were evaluated.</p> <p><strong>The Quality of Model Fit was Assessed by:</strong> Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA), Comparative Fit Index (CFI) and the Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI). The dimensional structure of the questionnaire was reevaluated by Structural Equation Modeling (Modification Indices (MI) and Expected Parameter Changes (EPC).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Initial model: total KMO 0.75 (min = 0.63, max = 0.84), Doornik-Hansen (chi2 (30) = 208.91, P = .00), eigenvalue (F1 = 2.87 and F2 = 1.98), CV not reached (F1: AVE = 0.30 and F2: AVE = 0.21) and DV corroborated, Conbrach alphas reached for 0.75 inhibitory items ( 95% CI = 0.69 to 0.81), for stimulators: 0.62 (95% CI = 0.51 to 0.70), RMSEA = 0.10 (90% CI = 0.08 to 0.11 ), CFI (0.70), TLI (0.65), items with MI&gt;10 (i16I, i23E, i25E, i28E). Re-specified Model: eigenvalue (F1 = 2.44 and F2 = 1.42), CV not reached (F1: AVE= 0.29 and F2: AVE=0.20) and corroborated DVl, Conbrach alphas: for 0.75 inhibitory items (95% CI = 0.69 to 0.81); stimulators items: 0.55 (95% CI = 0.44 to 0.64), RMSEA = 0.03 (90% CI = 0.00 to 0.06), CFI (0.95), TLI (0, 94). The items did not show MI&gt;10.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The reliability was achieved in both models. Validities: convergent was not achieved and the discriminant attested two-dimensionality.</p> Haydée Serrão Lanzillotti Maria Elisa Barros ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 79 91 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i131233 Opportunities for Enhancing Winemaking Processes by Employing High Power Ultrasonics Technology: A Review https://www.journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST/article/view/31206 <p>High power ultrasonics (HPU) technology has been used in the food industry to develop effective methods for food production, and to reduce operational costs and improve product quality with large-scale commercial applications since the 1990s. While high intensity energy produced by HPU has been successfully applied to many processes in food production, its application to winemaking is still at an experimental stage. However, as a disruptive industry changer, HPU technology offers an enormous range of possibilities to improve the wine industry’s competitive position through lower cost, higher quality, and the delivery of cleaner, fresher, and more appealing wines to the customer. It will enable wineries to create more sustainable, transformative and innovative solutions to enhance winemaking processes.</p> A. S. J. Yap G. A. Logan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-02-15 2021-02-15 47 64 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i131206