Etiology, Symptomatology and Management of Black Spot of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) through Botanicals and Biocontrol Agents – A Brief Review

Main Article Content

Mina Kumari
P. K. Jha

Abstract

Aloe vera is an important medicinal plant of Asphodelaceae (Liliaceae) family. It is widely used owing to its wound healing, anti-inflammatory, immunity, antidiabetic, antioxidant, laxative, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties. Similar to other crop plants, Aloe vera is infected by several plant pathogens that deteriorate its yield and quality. Among various fungal diseases, black spot disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. is the most serious disease which not only reduces the crop yield and market value but also the antioxidant properties and other medicinal efficacy of the plant. C. gloeosporioides is commonly controlled by chemical fungicides but due to the limitations of applying chemical control methods on medicinal plants, there is a need to look for some safe alternatives. The objective of this paper is to review the previous work on etiology, symptomatology and management of C. gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. through botanicals (natural plant extracts), biocontrol agents and some safe and ecofriendly chemicals like Azoxystrobin.

Keywords:
Aloe vera, black spot, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc., biocontrol agents, botanicals.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kumari, M., & K. Jha, P. (2020). Etiology, Symptomatology and Management of Black Spot of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) through Botanicals and Biocontrol Agents – A Brief Review. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 39(1), 11-20. https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i130476
Section
Review Article

References

Akinyele BO, Odiyi AC. Comparative study of vegetative morphology and the existing taxonomic, nutritional and medicinal status of Aloe vera L. African Crop Science Conference Proceedings. 2007;8:1567 1570.

Adodo A. Nature Power 4th edition. A christian approach to herbal medicine: Paxherbal Clinic and Research Laboratory, Benedictine Monastery, Ewu-Esan, Nigeria. 2009;278.

Gjerstad G, Riner TD. Current status of Aloe vera as a cure-all. The American Journal of Pharmacy. 1968;140:51-56.

Barcroft A, Myskja A. Aloe vera Nature’s Silent Healer. BAAM Publishing Limited London; 2009.

Hegger JP. Beneficial effect of Aloe on wounds healing in an excisional wound model. The Journal of Alternative Complementary Medicine. 1996;2(2):271-277.

Olusegun A. One Hundred medicinal uses of Aloe vera. Goodhealth Inc. Lagos. 2000; 76.

Ilondu EM, Okoegwale EE. Some Medicinal plants used in the Management of Dermatophytic diseases in Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Studies. 2002;3(12):146-151.

Talmadge J, Chavez J, Jacobs L, Munger C, Chinnah T, Chow JT, Williamson D, Yates K. Fractionation of Aloe vera L. inner gel, purification and Molecular profiling of activity. International Journal of Immunopharmacology. 2004;4:1757-1773.

Rajendran A, Narayanan V, Gnanavel I. Separation and characterization of the phenolic anthraquinones from Aloe vera. The Journal of Applied Sciences Research. 2007;3:1407-1415

Steenkamp V, Stewart MJ. Medicinal application and toxicological activities of Aloe Products. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2007;45:411-420.

Shivakumari V, Rajendran A. A useful medicinal herbal Aloe vera. Agrobios. 2007; 5(12):47-48.

Mahor G, Ali S. Recent update on the medicinal properties and use of Aloe vera in the treatment of various ailments. Bioscience Biotechnology Research Communication. 2016;9(2):273-288.

Vazqucz B, Avila G, Segura D, Escalante B. Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from Aloe vera gel. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006;55:69-75.

Chandan BK, Saxena AK, Shukla S, Sharma N, Gupta DK, Suri KA, Suri J, Bhadauria M, Singh B. Hepatoprotective potential of Aloe barbadensis Miller. Against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity. Journal of Ethnopharma-cology. 2007;111:560-566.

Kadiri EH. Effects of Aloe barbadensis Miller plant Extract on rats induced with hepatic injury. Nigerian Journal of Science and Environment. 2011;10(1&2):317-321.

Lecomteac C, Alabouvette C, Edel-Hermann V, Robert F, Steinberg C. Biological control of ornamental plant diseases caused by Fusarium oxysporum: A review. Biological Control. 2016;17- 30.

Anthony MH, Ayinla GT, Helnina AO, Ezekiel SA, Haruna OG. Health implication of toxigenic fungi in two Nigerian staples: guinea corn and rice. African Journal of Food Science. 2009;3(9):250-256.

Farr DF, Bills GF, Chamuris GP, Rossman AY. Fungi on plants and plant products in the United States. APS Press; 1989.

Kishi K, Furukawa T, Akot T. Purple spot of Aloe (Aloe arborescens Mill.) caused by Fusrium phyllophilum Nirenberg et O’Donnel (New Disease). Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan. 1999; 65(6):576-587.

Kamalakannan A, Gopalakrishnan C, Renuka R, Kalpana K, Lakshmi DL, Valluvaparidasan V. First report of Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot on Aloe barbadensis in India. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 2008;3(1):110-111.

Abkhoo J. Evidence of Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot of Aloe vera in Iran. Journal of Phytopathology. 2014;162(78): 516-518.

Vakalounakis DJ, Kavroulakis N, Lamprau KK. Occurrence of leaf spot caused by Alternaria tenissima on Aloe barbadensis in Greece. Plant Disease; 2015.

Avasthi S, Gautam AK, Bhadauria R. First report of anthracnose disease of Aloe vera caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Journal of Research in Biology. 2011;5: 408-410.

Avasthi S, Gautam AK, Bhadauria R. First report of Phoma betae on Aloe vera in India. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 2013;46(12):1508-1511.

Avasthi S, Gautam AK, Bhadauria R. Occurrence of leaf spot diseases on Aloe vera (L.) caused by Curvularia species from Madhya Pradesh, India. Biodiversitas. 2015;16(1):79-83.

Kawuri R, Suprapta DN, Nitta Y, Homma T. Destructive leaf sopy disease caused by Fusarium oxysporium on Aloe barbadensis Miller in Bali. Agricultural Science Research Journal. 2012;2(6):295-301.

Zhai LF, Liu J, Zhang MX, Hong N, Wang GP, Wang LP. The first report of leaf spots in Aloe vera caused by Nigrospora oryzae in China. Plant Disease. 2013;9(9):1256.

Kamil D, Sharma DK, Devi TP, Singh M. First report of leaf blight of Aloe vera caused by Sphaeropsis sapinea in India. Journal of Plant Pathology. 2014;96(2): 113.

Avasthi S, Gautam AK, Bhadauria R. First report of Phomopsis sp. on Aloe vera in India. Plant Pathology & Quarantine. 2016; 6(2):176-179.

Cedeño L, Briceño R, Fermín G. Anthracnose on aloe caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides at the arid zone of Mérida State, Venezuela. Fitopatología Venezolana. 2010;23(2):30-34.

Perfect SE, Hughes HB, O’Connell RJ, Green JR. Colletotrichum: A model genus for studies on pathology and fungal-plant interactions. Fungal Genetic Biology. 1999; 27:186-198.

Rojas EI, Rehner SA, Samuels GJ, Van Bael SA, Herre EA. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides associated with Theobroma cacao and other plants in Panama: Multilocus phylogenies distinguish pathogen and endophyte clades. Mycologia. 2010;102:1318-1338.

MacLean DJ, Braithwaite KS, Manners JM, Irwing JAG. How do we identify and classify fungal pathogens in the era of DNA analysis. Advances in Plant Pathology. 1993;10:207-244.

Joshee S, Pauulus BC, Park D, Johnston PR. Diversity and distribution of fungal foliar endophytes in New Zealand Podocarpaceae. Mycological Research. 2009;113:1003-1015.

Yuan ZL, Su ZZ, Mao LJ, Peng YQ, Yang GM. Distinctive endophytic fungal assemblage in stems of wild rice (Oryzae granulate) in China with special reference to two species of Muscodor (Xylariaceae). Journal of Microbiology. 2011;49:15-23.

Gautam AK, Avasthi S, Bhadauria R. Additin to new plant fungal disease during 21st centuryin India: An update for 2000-2011. Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany; 2012c.

Munch S, Lingner U, Floss DS, Ludwig N, Sauer N, Deising HB. The hemibiotrophic lifestyle of Colletotrichum species. Journal of Plant Physiology. 2008;165:41-51.

Farr DF, Aime MC, Rossman AY, Palm ME. Species of Colletotrichum on agaveaceae. Mycological Research. 2006; 110:1395-1408.

Deshmukh AJ, Mehta BP, Patil VA. In vitro evaluation of some known bioagents to control Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. & Sacc. causing anthracnose of Indian bean. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences. 2010;1(2).

Ghosh SK, Chakraborty N. In vitro biological control of C. gloeosporioides, causal organism of anthracnose of Sarpgandha (Rauwolfia serpentina). Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America. 2012;3(8):306-310.

Bautista-Rosales PU, Calderon-Santoyo M, Servín-Villegas R, Ochoa-Álvarez NA, Ragazzo-Sánchez JA. Action mechanisms of the yeast Meyerozyma caribbica for the control of the phytopathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in mangoes. Biological control. 2013;65(3): 293-301.

Bautista-Rosales PU, Calderon-Santoyo M, Servín-Villegas R, Ochoa-Álvarez NA, Vázquez-Juárez R, Ragazzo-Sánchez JA. Biocontrol action mechanisms of Cryptococcus laurentii on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides of mango. Crop Protection. 2014;65:194-201.

Campos-Martínez A, Velázquez-del Valle MG, Flores-Moctezuma HE, Suárez-Rodríguez R, Ramírez-Trujillo JA, Hernández-Lauzardo AN. Antagonistic yeasts with potential to control C. gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. and C. acutatum on avocado fruits. Crop Protection. 2016;89:101-104.

Sinha B, Padamini RK, Pramesh KH, Koireng RJ. Effect of Trichoderma spp. against anthracnose disease of Aloe vera caused by C. gloeosporioides in Manipur. Environment and Ecology. 2016;34(3):901-904.

Paul PK, Sharma PD. Azadirachta indica leaf extracts induces resistance in barley against leaf strip disease. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology (Abstract). 2002;1(4):136.

Patel RV, Joshi KR. Antagonistic effects of some bioagents in vitro against C. gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. the causal agent of leaf spot of turmeric. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 2001;31:126.

Raheja S, Thakore BBL. Effect of physical factor, plant extracts and bio-agent on C. gloeosporioides Penz. the causal organism of anthracnose of Yam. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 2002;32: 293-294.

Prabhakar K, Muthulakshmi P, Raguchander T, Parthiban VK. Effect of plant products on the mycelia growth and conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides causing anthracnose disease of mango fruits. Madras Agricultural Journal. 2003; 90:707-709.

Pandey A, Amita JM, Kamle M, Mishra R, Chauhan UK, Pandey BK. A biological approach towards mango anthracnose. The 9th International Mango Symposium at Sanya, China; 2010a.

Gautam A, Kant M, Thakur Y. Isolation of endophytic fungi from Cannabis sativa and study their antifungal potential. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 2013;46:627-635.

Ogbebor NO, Adekunle AT, Enobakhare DA. Inhibition of C. gloeosporioides (Penz) Sacc. causal organism of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) leaf spot using plant extracts. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2007;6:3.

Mukherjee A, Khandker S, Islam MR, Shahid S. Efficacy of some plant extracts on the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University. 2011;9: 43.

Prapassorn B, Piyarat N, Paweena R, Angsuman C. Effect of crude leaf extracts on C. gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc. Psyche- A Journal of Entomology; 2012.

Barrera-Necha LL, Bautista-Baños S, Flores-Moctezuma HE, Estudillo AR. Efficacy of essential oils on the conidial germination, growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. and control of postharvest diseases in papaya (Carica papaya L.). Plant Pathology Journal. 2008;7(2):174-178.

Anaruma ND, Schmidt FL, Duarte MCT, Figueira GM, Delarmelina C, Benato EA, Sartoratto A. Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc. in yellow passion fruit using Cymbopogon citratus essential oil. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2010;41(1):66-73.

Sundravadana S, Alice D, Kuttalam S, Samiyappan R. Control of mango anthracnose by azoxystrobin. Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection. 2006;1(2):109.

Zahid N, Alderson PG, Ali A, Maqbool M, Manickam S. In vitro control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides by using chitosan loaded nanoemulsions. In VII International Postharvest Symposium. 2012;1012:769-774.

Tasival V, Benagi VI, Yashoda R, Hegde BC, Kamana, Naik KR. In vitro evaluation of botanicals, bioagents and fungicides against anthracnose of papaya caused by C. gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2009;22: 803-806.

Sataraddi AR, Prashanth A, Prabhu HV, Jamadar MM, Aski S. Role of bioagents and botanicals in the management of anthracnose of pomegranate. Acta Horticulture. 2011;890:539–544.

Nidhina K, Hegde V. In vitro screening of biological and chemical agents together on the growth of C. gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. causing inflorescence die back in arecanut. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 2013;1905-1911.

Pandey N, Ravi S, Gusain VM. In vitro efficacy of biocontrol agents and fungicides against anthracnose of french bean caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn.). International Journal of Current Sciences. 2019;7(3):3266-3269.