Main Article Content
Ganoderma lucidum is an important medicinal mushroom widely used in pharmaceuticals for their antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer and immunoregulatory properties and also used in agriculture as an antiviral and antibacterial agent. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a tool widely used in the researches for the identification of organic compounds in the organism. In our study, we used FT-IR Spectroscopy for determination the chemical nature of Ganoderma lucidum, and their standards Squalene and Ganoderic acid A. In the FT-IR spectrum for the G. lucidum obtained in the region of 3782.69 cm-1 to 568.898 cm-1 the absorptions peak represents the alcohols, halogens, silicon and phosphorus groups present in the sample. In the squalene standard, ketones, amides, and guanidine, nitrile and azine stretches were found in the wavelength 1655-1550 cm-1. In the Ganoderic acid A sulfur compounds with weak stretching intensity were obtained in the wavelength 500-400 cm-1. We have concluded that FT-IR spectroscopy is an effective method to analyze the chemical nature of the organic groups present in the samples.
Yoon SY, Eo SK, Kim YS, Lee CK, Han SS. Antimicrobial activity of Ganoderma lucidum extract alone and in combination with some antibiotics. Archives of Pharmacal Research. 1994;17(6):438-42.
Eo SK, Kim YS, Lee CK, Han SS. Antiviral activities of various water and methanol soluble substances isolated from Ganoderma lucidum. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;68:129–136.
Kino K, Mizumoto K, Sone T, Yamaji T, Watanabe J, Yamashita A, Yamaoka K, Shimizu K, Ko K, Tsunoo H. An immunomodulating protein, Ling Zhi-8 (LZ-8) prevents insulitis in non-obese diabetic mice. Diabetologia. 1990;33(12):713-8.
Lakshmi B, Ajith TA, Sheena N, Gunapalan N, Janardhanan KK. Antiperoxidative, anti‐inflammatory and antimutagenic activities of ethanol extract of the mycelium of Ganoderma lucidum occurring in South India. Teratogenesis, carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis. 2003; 23(S1):85-97.
Kovalenko OG, Polishchuk OM, Krupodorova TA, Bisko NA, Buchalo AS. Screening of metabolites produced by strains of Ganoderma lucidum [Curt.: Fr] P. Karst and Ganoderma applanatum [Pirs.: Waller] Pat. for their activity against tobacco mosaic virus. Bulletin of the Kiev National University. Taras Shevchenko. Series: Biology. 2008;1:32-4.
Hernandez LR. Novel antimicrobial activities of Ganoderma lucidum and Laetiporus sulphureus for agriculture. University of Idaho; 2004.
Kaur H, Nyochembeng LM, Mentreddy SR, Banerjee P, Cebert E. Assessment of the antimicrobial activity of Lentinula edodes against Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. Crop Protection. 2016;89:284-8.
Xiong Z, Zhang X, Wang H, Ma F, Li L, Li W. Application of brown-rot basidiomycete Fomitopsis sp. IMER2 for biological treatment of black liquor. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. 2007; 104(6):446-50.
Amir RM, Anjum FM, Khan MI, Khan MR, Pasha I, Nadeem M. Application of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the identification of wheat varieties. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2013; 50(5):1018-23.
Karwa AS, Gaikwad S, Rai MK. Mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. and their role as anti-microbials and antibiotic activity enhancers. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms. 2011;13(5).
Chen J, Zhou J, Zhang L, Nakamura Y, Norisuye T. Chemical structure of the water-insoluble polysaccharide isolated from the fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum. Polymer Journal. 1998;30(10): 838.
Kan Y, Chen T, Wu Y, Wu J. Antioxidant activity of polysaccharide extracted from Ganoderma lucidum using response surface methodology. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2015;72: 151-7.
Li N, Yan C, Hua D, Zhang D. Isolation, purification, and structural characterization of a novel polysaccharide from Ganoderma capense. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2013;57:285-90.
Wang X, Chen X, Qi Z, Liu X, Li W, Wang S. A study of Ganoderma lucidum spores by FTIR microspectroscopy. Spectro-chimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 2012;91:285-9.
Choong YK, Sun SQ, Zhou Q, Ismail Z, Rashid BA, Tao JX. Determination of storage stability of the crude extracts of Ganoderma lucidum using FTIR and 2D-IR spectroscopy. Vibrational Spectroscopy. 2011;57(1):87-96.
Mohacek-Grosev V, Bozac R, Puppels GJ. Vibrational spectroscopic characterization of wild growing mushrooms and toadstools. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 2001;57(14):2815-29.
Ma Y, He H, Wu J, Wang C, Chao K, Huang Q. Assessment of polysaccharides from mycelia of genus ganoderma by mid-infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy. Scientific Reports. 2018;8(1):10.
Ospina Álvarez SP, Ramírez Cadavid DA, Escobar Sierra DM, Ossa Orozco CP, Rojas Vahos DF, Zapata Ocampo P, Atehortúa L. Comparison of extraction methods of chitin from Ganoderma lucidum mushroom obtained in submerged culture. BioMed Research International; 2014.
Zhu Y, Tan TL. Penalized discriminant analysis for the detection of wild-grown and cultivated Ganoderma lucidum using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 2016;159:68-77.
Paulino AT, Simionato JI, Garcia JC, Nozaki J. Characterization of chitosan and chitin produced from silkworm crysalides. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2006;64(1):98-103.
Yan K, Zhang W, Yu H, Wang H, Zhang X. New polysaccharide compounds derived from submerged culture of Ganoderma lucidum and Lycium barbarum. Food Technology and Biotechnology. 2010; 48(1):94.
Yue QX, Song XY, Ma C, Feng LX, Guan SH, Wu WY, Yang M, Jiang BH, Liu X, Cui YJ, Guo DA. Effects of triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum on protein expression profile of HeLa cells. Phytomedicine. 2010; 17(8-9):606-13.
Kacurakova M, Capek P, Sasinkova V, Wellner N, Ebringerova A. FT-IR study of plant cell wall model compounds: Pectic polysaccharides and hemicelluloses. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2000;43(2):195-203.
Smith SA, King RE, Min DB. Oxidative and thermal stabilities of genetically modified high oleic sunflower oil. Food Chemistry. 2007;102(4):1208-13.
Wang YY, Li JQ, Liu HG, Wang YZ. Attenuated Total Reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) combined with chemometrics methods for the classification of Lingzhi species. Molecules. 2019;24(12):2210.
Sood G, Sharma S, Kapoor S, Khanna PK. Optimization of extraction and characterization of polysaccharides from medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum using response surface methodology. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2013;7(31):2323-2329.