Conservation Agriculture Mechanization Practices for Small Holders under Soybean-wheat Cropping Pattern

Main Article Content

Manish Kumar
M. Din
A. P. Magar
Dushyant Singh

Abstract

The field study was conducted under wheat-soybean cropping pattern during Kharif and Rabi with wheat crops at ICAR-Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering Bhopal to identify the appropriate package of animal drawn implements suitable to small and marginal farmers for conservation agriculture. Different tillage treatments viz. no-tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage system were adopted using animal power during the field experiments. The grain yield was found significantly higher in minimum tillage and conventional tillage as compared to no-till for all cropping patterns. Additionally, minimum tillage saves 20% more operational cost and 34% operational energy as compared to conventional tillage. The average soil cone index was found in the range of 1.32 to 1.42 MPa with different tillage treatments. The soil bulk density was found in the range of 1.20 to 1.22 for all tillage conditions. The soil organic carbon was found significantly higher in the next after second year of practice in the case no-tillage (0.64) and minimum tillage (0.60) as compared to conventional (0.55).The result indicated that practice of conservation agriculture through minimum tillage is possible in soybean-wheat crop rotation through animal power that could be benefited for small and marginal farmers and performed better timeliness in operations.

Keywords:
Conservation agriculture, no-tillage, minimum tillage, organic carbon, small and marginal farmers.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kumar, M., Din, M., Magar, A. P., & Singh, D. (2020). Conservation Agriculture Mechanization Practices for Small Holders under Soybean-wheat Cropping Pattern. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 38(6), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630450
Section
Original Research Article

References

Anonymous. State of Indian Agriculture. Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of India. 2013;43–44.

Anonymous. All India Report on Agriculture Census 2010-11. Department of agriculture, cooperation & farmers welfare ministry of agriculture & farmers welfare New Delhi. 2015b;156–162.

Chaudhuri D, Singh RC. Improved technology for utilization of draught animals. AICRP on UAE Scheme, ICAR-Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering. 2013;30:1–5.

Kaumbutho PG, Simalenga TE. Conservation tillage with animal traction. A resource book of the Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA). Harare. Zimbabwe. Publication supported by French Cooperation, Namibia. 1999;173.

Giller KE, Corbeels M, Nyamangara J, Triomphe B, Affholder F, Scopel E, Tittonell PA research agenda to explore the role of conservation agriculture in African smallholder farming systems. Field Crops Research. 2011;124(3):468–472.

Valbuena D, Erenstein O, Tui SHK, Abdoulaye T, Claessens L, Duncan AJ, Gérard B, Rufino MC, Teufel N, Van Rooyen A, Van Wijk MT. Conservation Agriculture in mixed crop–livestock systems: Scoping crop residue trade-offs in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Field Crops Research. 2012;132: 175–184.

Mkomwa S, Kassam AH, Friedrich T, Shula RK. Conservation agriculture in Africa: An overview. Conservation Agriculture for Africa. Building Resilient Farming Systems in a Changing Climate; Kassam AH, Mkomwa S, Friedrich T, Eds. 2017;1–9.

Corbeels M, De Graaff J, Ndah TH, Penot E, Baudron F, Naudin K, Andrieu N, Chirat G, Schuler J, Nyagumbo I, Rusinamhodzi L. Understanding the impact and adoption of conservation agriculture in Africa: A multi-scale analysis. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 2014;187: 155–170.

Brown B, Nuberg I, Llewellyn R. Stepwise frameworks for understanding the utilisation of conservation agriculture in Africa. Agricultural Systems. 2017;15(3): 11–22.

Anonymous. Conservation Agriculture Adoption Worldwide; 2015.
Available:http://www.fao.org/ag/ca/6c.html (Accessed on date: 21/09/2017)

Derpsch R, Friedrich T, Kassam A, Hongwen L. Current status of adoption of no-till farming in the world and some of its main benefits. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering. 2010;3(1):1–23.

Fowler R, Rockstrom J. Conservation tillage for sustainable agriculture: an agrarian revolution gathers momentum in Africa. Soil and Tillage Research. 2001;61 (1):93–108.

Singh SP. Physiological workload of farm women while evaluating sickles for paddy harvesting. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal. 2012; 14(1): 82–88.

Anonymous. Indian Standard Institution (IS 9164-1979). Guide for Estimating Cost of Farm Machinery Operation. New Delhi. 2002;3–12.

Ghorbani R, Mondani F, Amirmoradi S, Feizi H, Khorramdel S, Teimouri M, Sanjani S, Anvarkhah S, Aghel H. A case study of energy use and economical analysis of irrigated and dryland wheat production systems. Applied Energy. 2011; 88(1):283–288.

Kumar M, Badegaonkar UR, Din M. Development and performance evaluation of animal drawn garlic digger. Journal of Agricultural Engineering. 2017;54(1):1–10.

Osunbitan JA. Oyedele DJ, Adekalu KO. Tillage effects on bulk density, hydraulic conductivity and strength of a loamy sand soil in southwestern Nigeria. Soil and Tillage Research. 2005;82(1):57-64.

Graham MH, Haynes RJ, Meyer JH. Soil organic matter content and quality: effects of fertilizer applications, burning and trash retention on a long-term sugarcane experiment in South Africa. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 2002;34(1):93-102.

Martens DA. Management and crop residue influence soil aggregate stability. Journal of Environmental Quality. 2000;29(3):723-727.

ASAE S313.3. Soil Cone Penetrometer, ASAE, St Joseph, MI. 902-904, 2006;1–2.

Govaerts B, Sayre KD, Deckers J. Stable high yields with zero tillage and permanent bed planting. Field Crops Research. 2005; 94(1):33–42.

Singh KK, Sharma SK. Conservation tillage and crop residue management in rice-wheat cropping system. Abrol IP, Gupta RK, Malik RK. 2005;23–32.

Devkota M, Martius C, Gupta RK, Devkota KP, McDonald AJ, Lamers JPA. Managing soil salinity with permanent bed planting in irrigated production systems in Central Asia. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 2015;20:90–97.

Saad A, Das A, Rana TK, Sharma AR. Productivity, resource-use efficiency and economics of maize (Zea mays)- wheat (Triticumaestivum)-greengram (Vignaradiata) cropping system under conservation agriculture in irrigated north-western Indo-Gangetic plains. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 2015;60(4):502–510.