Main Article Content
Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the major viruses causing high yield loss in bananas. The study was carried out to gain a better understanding of the host and virus interaction and to explore the adaptive mechanism and biochemical responses in banana cultivars viz., Rasthali and Grand Naine against the banana bunchy top virus (BBTV). In the leaf samples of BBTV infected Rasthali and Grand Naine, estimated the total chlorophyll, carbohydrates, phenols and enzyme activities such as peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The virus infected samples of both cultivars showed a significant increase in the defense enzymes over the healthy sample. Higher total phenols in healthy Rasthali plants which further significantly increased after BBTV infection was observed in comparison to Grand Naine. In contrast to Grand Naine, Rasthali showed higher polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity contributing to increased polyphenol content. Higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in virus infected Rasthali was observed in comparison to Grand Naine. The increased amount of total phenols, polyphenols and SOD activity in Rasthali might have contributed to less susceptibility to bunchy top virus. However, total protein and chlorophyll content were reduced after BBTV infection in both the banana cultivars.
Jones JD, Dangl JL. The plant immune system. Nature. 2006:444(7117):323.
Vanitha SC, Niranjana SR, Umesha S. Role of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and polyphenol oxidase in host resistance to bacterial wilt of tomato. J. Phytopathology. 2009;157(9):552-7.
Zhao CJ, Wang AR, Shi YJ, Wang LQ, Liu WD, Wang ZH, Lu GD. Identification of defense-related genes in rice responding to challenge by Rhizoctonia solani. Theor. Appl. Genet. 2008; 116(4):501-16.
Doyle JJ, Doyle JL. A rapid DNA isolation procedure from small quantity of fresh leaf material. Phytochemical Bulletin. 1987;119:11–15.
Hiscox JD, Israelstam GF. A method for the extraction of chlorophyll from leaf tissue without maceration. Can J Bot. 1979;57(12):1332-1334.
Dubois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Rebers PT, Smith F. Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal Chem. 1956;28(3):350-6.
McCready RM, Guggolz J, Silviera V, Owens HS. Determination of starch and amylose in vegetables. Anal Chem. 1950;22(9):1156-8.
Folin O, Ciocalteu V. On tyrosine and tryptophan determinations in proteins. J Bio chem. 1927;73(2):627-50.
Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Ana Biochem. 1976;72(1-2):248-54.
Malick CP, Singh MB. Plants enzymology. New Delhi: Kalyani Publishers. Anubis, with Schostosoma mansoni scadinarion. Journal of laboratory animal. 1980:34:119-26.
Ngadze E, Icishahayo D, Coutinho TA, Van der Waals JE. Role of polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, chlorogenic acid, and total soluble phenols in resistance of potatoes to soft rot. Plant Dis. 2012;96(2):186-92.
Maechlay AC, Chance B. The assay of catalase and peroxidase. Methods of Biochemical Analysis. Interscience Inc. New York. 1954:357-424.
Chen GX, Asada K. Ascorbate peroxidase in tea leaves: Occurrence of two isozymes and the differences in their enzymatic and molecular properties. Plant Cell Physiol. 1989;30(7):987-98.
Upadhyaya A, Sankhla D, Davis TD, Sankhla N, Smith BN. Effect of paclobutrazol on the activities of some enzymes of activated oxygen metabolism and lipid peroxidation in senescing soybean leaves. J. pl. physiol. 1985;121(5):453-61.
Dhindsa RS, Plumb-Dhindsa P, Thorpe TA. Leaf senescence: Correlated with increased levels of membrane permeability and lipid peroxidation, and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase. J Exp Bot. 1981;32(1):93-101.
Goodman RN, Király Z, Zaitlin M. The biochemistry and physiology of infectious plant disease. The Biochemistry and Physiology of Infectious Plant Disease;1967.
Balachandran S, Hurry VM, Kelley SE, Osmond CB, Robinson SA, Rohozinski J, Seaton GG, Sims DA. Concepts of plant biotic stress. Some insights into the stress physiology of virus‐infected plants, from the perspective of photosynthesis. Physiol Plant. 1997;100(2):203-13.
Sinha A, Srivastava M. Biochemical changes in mungbean plants infected by Mungbean yellow mosaic virus. Int J Virol. 2010;6(3):150-7.
Zhuang, Jun, Wenwu L, Christopher JC, Pengxiang S, Taiyun W, Zujjian W, Lainhui X. Cleavage of the Babuvirus movement protein B4 into functional peptides capable of host factor conjugation is required for virulence. Virologica sinica. 2019;1-11.
Anuradha C, Selvarajan R, Vasantha S, Suresha GS. Biochemical Characterization of Compatible Plant Virus Interaction: A Case Study with Bunchy Top virus-Banana Host-Pathosystem. 2015;14(4):212-222.
Gaddam SA, Kotakadi VS, Reddy MN, Saigopal DV. Antigenic relationships of citrus yellow mosaic virus by immunological methods. Asian J. Plant Sci. Res. 2012:566-9.
Jain AK, Yadava HS. Biochemical Constituents of Finger Millet Genotypes Associated with Resistance to Blast Caused by Pyricularia grisea Sacc. Ann Plant Prot Sci. 2003;11(1):70-4.
Kushwaha KP, Narain U. Biochemical changes in pigeon-pea leaves infested with Alternaria tenuissima. Ann Plant Prot Sci. 2005;13(2):415-7.
Parashar A, Lodha P. Phenolic estimation in Foeniculum vulgare infected with ramularia blight. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 2007;15(2):396-8.
Niyongere C, Ateka E, Losenge T, Blomme G, Lepoint P. Screening Musa genotypes for Banana Bunchy top disease resistance in Burundi. Acta horta. 2011;897.
Manohar Jebakumar R, Selvarajan R. Biopriming of micropropagated banana plants at pre-or post-BBTV inoculation stage with rhizosphere and endophytic bacteria determines their ability to induce systemic resistance against BBTV in cultivar Grand Naine. Biocontrol Sci Technol. 2018;28(11):1074-90.
Carvalho DD, Ferreira RA, Oliveira LM, Oliveira AF, Gemaque RC. Proteins and isozymes electrophoresis in seeds of Copaifera Langsdorffii Desf. (Leguminosae caesalpinioideae) artificially aged. Revista Árvore. 2006;30(1):19-24.
Király Z, Barna B, Kecskés A, Fodor J. Down-regulation of antioxidative capacity in a transgenic tobacco which fails to develop acquired resistance to necrotization caused by TMV. Free Radic Res. 2002;36(9):981-91.
Dieng H, Satho T, Hassan AA, Aziz AT, Morales RE, Hamid SA, Miake F, Abubakar S. Peroxidase activity after viral infection and whitefly infestation in juvenile and mature leaves of Solanum lycopersicum. J Phytopathol. 2011;159(11‐12):707-12.
Devanathan M, Ramaiah M, Sundar AR, Murugan M. Changes of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase in bunchy top nana virus infected and healthy cultivars of banana. AoB Plants. 2005;19(1):114.
Meena RK, Patni V, Arora DK. Study on phenolics and their oxidative enzyme in Capsicum annuum L. infected with Geminivirus. Asian J. Exp. Sci. 2008;22(3):307-10.
Siddique Z, Akhtar KP, Hameed A, Sarwar N, Imran-Ul-Haq, Khan SA. Biochemical alterations in leaves of resistant and susceptible cotton genotypes infected systemically by cotton leaf curl Burewala virus. J Plant Interact. 2014;9(1):702-11.
Rai VP, Jaiswal N, Kumar S, Singh SP, Kumar R, Rai AB. Response of total phenols and peroxidase activity in Chilli exposed to pepper leaf curl virus disease. Vegetable Science. 2010;37(1):78-80.
Kobeasy MI, El-Beltagi HS, El-Shazly MA, Khattab EA. Induction of resistance in Arachis hypogaea L. against Peanut mottle virus by nitric oxide and salicylic acid. Physiological and Mol Plant Pathol. 2011; 76(2):112-8.
Hakmaoui A, Pérez-Bueno ML, García-Fontana B, Camejo D, Jiménez A, Sevilla F, Barón M. Analysis of the antioxidant response of Nicotiana benthamiana to infection with two strains of Pepper mild mottle virus. J Exp Bot. 2012;63(15):5487-96.
Rodríguez M, Taleisnik E, Lenardon S, Lascano R. Are Sunflower chlorotic mottle virus infection symptoms modulated by early increases in leaf sugar concentration. J Plant Physiol. 2010;167 (14):1137-44.
Chatterjee A, Ghosh SK. Alterations in biochemical components in mesta plants infected with yellow vein mosaic disease. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology. 2008;20(4): 267-75.